In The Beast: Riding the Rails and Dodging Narcos on the Migrant Trail, Oscar Martinez comments on the injustices that occur while migrating from Central America. Central Americans are forced to leave their countries in fear of the inevitable consequences. The systematic abuse Central Americans endure while migrating is founded on that fear which results in more repercussions for migrants. The psychological effects of migrating is used by Martinez to give insight on the atrocities that happen in Central America. The corruption involved while migrating in Central America is against human rights and should be brought immediate attention internationally. Martinez uses the experiences of migrants to expose Mexico’s passivity on the subject and to expose readers’ to the hard truths that occur while migrating. Martinez uses the psychological trauma migrants experience to expose the issues of …show more content…
Medina states, “Gang rule is absolute and young people are extremely vulnerable to forced recruitment into the gangs. Adolescents are continually intimidated and subjected to violence, pressurised into joining the gangs or working for them as drug pushers or in other roles” (Medina). This fear dynamic is used in order to promote corruption within the system of migration. The migrants that decide to escape are forced to encounter constant dangers while migrating. Medina states, “Fear of deportation is largely behind the failure to report crimes; in order to get their destination, most migrants will continue on their journey as soon as possible, leaving the experiences behind them, shrouded in silence” (Medina). This silence thrives on the system of corruption which implicates Mexico’s passivity to protect migrants from violence. Overall, this represents enduring the consequences the migrants face and the perseverance to
Individuals generally join a gang as young adults but, are sometimes recruited as early on as elementary school. Society generally sees gangs as dangerous groups to stay away from, but for a young person on the street, a gang offers a sense of family. Gangs present the benefit of protection and being part of a pack. When Latin Americans came to the United States as illegal immigrants they had very few resources and were essentially homeless. A simple solution was to join a gang. Mara Salvatrucha 13 profited from this scenario, exponentially growing in strength and size (Illegal Immigrant Gangs Commit Most U.S. Crime, 2009). An initial reason for the formation of Mara Salvatrucha 13 was for the immigrant’s protection from other gangs, but eventually ended up greatly surpassing their competition in both size and strength (2009).
As has been demonstrated by Ochoa and Rios’s findings, labelings’ repercussions are negative and assign expectations that in turn limit life opportunities. In Gonzales and Tobar’s books, we see the over reactions and distorted views that labeling migrants as criminals creates. The repercussions of this is to further propagate fear to quell dissent within the migrant population.
Mara Salvatrucha, also known as MS-13, is a well-known transnational criminal organization (TCO) originating from El Salvador. They are specifically targeted for its involvement in transnational criminal activities including drug trafficking, kidnapping, human trafficking, sex trafficking, and many more. It is certain that there are more transnational gangs other than MS-13, but the reality of these gangs impact society, and their neighborhoods, more than one can imagine. There are underlying realities “that make it difficult to generalize [the gangs].” The one of many underlying realities is that each neighborhood level gang group of transnational gangs, particularly MS-13, has a “great deal of autonomy in the relationship it maintains with other organizations.” The second reality factor is that gangs, especially MS-13 in El Salvador are in a state of turmoil. The third reality factor is that the gangs in Central America differ from each other in significant ways. Although most gangs are involved in human smuggling and drug retail, MS-13 has a solidified relationship with “transportista networks and are reaching out to Mexican TCOs.” These realities can be analyzed with Taussig’s notions and theoretical framework of space of death.
The power that the drug cartels have over the Mexican government and civilians has risen, terrorizing the country as a whole. With the fear the cartels have drilled in the civilians in Mexico, the United States has taken action to aid its neighboring country. In many cases Mexican civilians have had to move for their safety; “people move after their source of income has declined or become less sustainable as a result…of violence [from the cartels] and insecurity” (Albuja 29.) The Mexican military and the United States marines have come together to create safety to the civilians in Mexico. Both the Marines and the military govern over the streets of specific parts of the th...
The subject that I have chosen for my essay is: ‘Maras in Central America. Analyse its social causes and consequences’ – a gang that operates on territories of Central and Latin America. During writing my essay I want to analyse the phenomenon of how a not that big community of Salvadoran young immigrants has been transformed into one of the most dangerous and the largest gang groups in the United States and Northern Central America in about 30 years. Also I would like to analyse and present social causes and consequences of Las Maras. The past 20 years has been an escalation of crime in Central America. Surprisingly not in Colombia but in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala are one of the most dangerous countries in the world. According to
In this sense, the film tests the resiliency of good human nature. The modern world is becoming increasingly set in its extremes, as the lifestyle of the poor vastly contrasts that of the wealthy. The implementation of NAFTA reflects this movement toward separation, despite the fact that it was intended to boost trade between regions and create more prosperity on both sides of the United States-Mexico border. The Mexican elites saw it as their salvation. Others saw it as “ a death sentence.” The Chiapas region itself exemplifies this gap, as well. The region was split between the relatively prosperous west, which was fertile and characterized by commercial development, and the poor, subsistence-oriented east. It was not by accident that the Zapatista movement began in Chiapas as the struggle between ranchers, landowners, and subsistence farmers was intensified by NAFTA.
In the United States, when a gang such as MS-13 establishes itself. There are many problems attached with the gang activities. In a community such as Fairfax County, Virginia MS-13 creates a significant problems, this suggests that any community can find itself susceptible to and victimized by gang activity. By crossing the borders, we can also examine the problems that a country such as El Salvador and their cities experience. A strong presence of the MS-13 criminal experience happened after the deportation of many MS-13 from the United States back to El Salvador and to some parts of
As an investigative journalist, Ms. Castaneda spends months and sometimes even years researching and conducting special reports about different topics of interest for the nation and the western hemisphere, such as serious cases of diplomatic crisis, political corruption, dangerous conflicts and human rights abuses. For example, Ms. Castaneda conducted an exhaustive and exceptional research in the most dangerous places in Mexico to expose the abuses suffered by immigrants from Central America when they are kidnapped by criminal gangs and drug cartels as part of the war for control of the north of the
Drug related violence “has been exploding” and a pentagon report likens “the Aztec nation to the terrorist infested basket case Pakistan”-Time Magazine. The different drug cartels fighting between themselves has created problems for Mexico. According to both the NYDT and Time corruption is present “in all law enforcement agencies” and has been described as “endemic to Mexican politics”. Further to this NYDT has obtained information of gruesom...
Many people are astounded to hear that human trafficking is not just a complication outside of America’s borders and that it is flattering more of an American drawback as intervals go on. Human trafficking has converted into creation's second leading criminal industry, transforming the individual, their dignity and rights as a human being, and humankind. The United States of America is mainly a transfer for trafficking in persons. It is assessed in The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, “that 14,500 to 17,500 people, primarily women and children, are trafficked to the U.S. annually.” This act augments pre-existing illegal disadvantages, offers new defenses and makes accessible certain welfares and aids to victims of trafficking. The Department’s Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices estimated that from at least 127 countries have found to be harnessed in 137 states. In the United States, for instance, more than 15,000 individuals are enforced into the present day counterpart of slavery every year. An estimated one hundred thousand to three hundred thousand Americans are forced into this each year, as predicted by the national police department. But the collision of human trafficking goes beyond individual victims; it undermines the safety and security of all nations it touches. The U.S. has aided states to enact anti-trafficking regulation, educated law enforcement officials, DAs, border guards and judicial officers, and impeaching traffickers, and protecting targets.
Thousands of foreigners are smuggled across national borders as forced labour in factories, farms, and brothels. Many are forced to become victims of human trafficking through force or the false promise of the American dream. The threat of human trafficking presently is that it deprives people of their human rights, it is a global health risk, and fuels the growth of organized crimes, such as sex crimes. Within this paper I will discuss my research on human trafficking and the victims’ deprivation of human rights. In order to so, I will synthesize three relevant sources on this topic, discuss additional questions that should be addressed when further researching this issue from a peace studies perspective, and outline a specific proposal for future research.
Latin America displays a direct link between slavery and trafficking “either because prospective slaves with the participation of enganchadores, coyotes, polleros, or gatos initiate the trajectory to cross borders or migrate within the same country looking for economic opportunities, or because they are kidnapped/enticed en masse to perform contract work, as in the case of Brazil.” High instances of slavery and trafficking have been found in Brazil, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ha...
Regionally, the issue of trafficking and unsafe migration requires a coordinated approach because human trafficking is a problem that crosses borders. Many of the migrants in the Asia-Pacific region are migrating without legal documents, causing instability and making human trafficking and unsafe migration an even bigger reality. The mass exodus of more than 200,000 Cambodian migrants from Thailand in June 2014 when rumors spread that the Thai military government would deport all illegal migrants demonstrates Human Trafficking the precarious situation many migrants find themselves in. With the establishment of the Asean Economic Community in the coming years, the migration rate is expected to spike.From our work in anti-trafficking, we know that people respond when they feel connected to a story; when they can put themselves in the shoes of someone else and imagine it. That is why World Vision puts such a huge emphasis on local-level work where we can reach the most vulnerable and the most affected by the
Any any given time, an estimate of 2.5 million individuals are in one or more forms of forced labour, including sexual exploitation. While, the majority of victims are typically 18-24 years of age, 1.2 million children are trafficked every year. Moreover, victims are trafficked from 127 countries and exploited in 137 (Chibba, 2014). Thus, these alarming statistics illustrate contemporary society and how millions of individuals are in search of better lives around the world. Accordingly, some individuals migrate by choice, while, some out of necessity, or some though forced migration. as a result of poverty, conflict and or disasters. Thus, those who are forced to migrate are vulnerable and at risk of being tricked, kidnapped
In contrast, migrant smuggling features: illegal border crossing; illegal (false of stolen) documents; voluntary; and the commodity is a service through movement. Nonetheless, migrants who are smuggled can be extremely vulnerable to human trafficking, abuse, and other crimes due to the illegality of their presence in the destination country and the accrued debt to their smugglers, and may be subjected to labor or sex trafficking enroute - which qualifies as human trafficking (U.S. Department of State). Not all smuggling cases include human trafficking, nor do all human trafficking cases begin with migrant smuggling, but migrant smuggling can turn into human trafficking if the circumstances change during the journey or upon arrival in the destination country (Ibid). It is crucial for law enforcement, policymakers, and civil society organizations to be cognizant of the differences between human trafficking and migrant smuggling to ensure that trafficking victims receive the due process of law, services, and protections entitled to them to ensure that they are not re-exploited and are able to gain control of their futures. A subsequent section of the group paper will review the impacts of human