Many factors of causation lead up to the explosion of World War One. These causations are both preconditions and precipitants. The preconditions are factors that had built up over a long term; whereas the precipitants are catalysts or short term factors. The preconditions are as pointed toward war as the arms race and the treaties, such as the Entente Cordial and the Triple Alliance; or less war intentional such as Nationalism and Imperialism. The precipitants are events that include the assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand.
Rudyard Kipling’s poem “The White Man’s Burden” articulates the imperialism of the English empire into India, Cambodia, China, and Africa. The English thought it their duty to go out and take over these barbaric nations to civilize them. They justified their act of westernizing and destroying others’ cultures as the “burden’ they were born to bear. “And when your goal is nearest the end for others sought, watch sloth and heathen folly bring all your hopes to nought.” They blamed the ineffectiveness of their efforts on the native’s laziness. They are the ones whose whole world is being flipped upside down; being submerged in a new culture with new laws and strange people. Yet, somehow they are the lazy ones and despite the trails for the white man at the end of the day it is beneficial to the savages.
In the British missionary letters England’s foreign power is once again made apparent. The missionaries are urging the Queen to annex the South Sea Islands because if they don’t the French will. And, Lord have mercy if the French annex the islands instead of England. “The sympathy of the New Herbrides natives are all with Great Britain, hence they long for British protection, while th...
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...s Germany’s time to be a world leader. On the contrary England believed that it was in the world’s best interests if it remained a world power. Both countries are very power hungry and manipulating words to best fit their interests not the wellbeing of other countries. Due to nationalism, countries see other countries as threats. An arms race begins and alliances are formed. So when one thing is added to another, a war explodes and the whole world is involved. Now as a Christian I am not trying to say that God isn’t in control, on the contrary, I find it hard to believe that God would take a step back and allow war to erupt among his entire creation. I believe, through past examples, that it seems more likely that man’s selfish, sinful nature caused preconditions to build up that finally enough was enough and the world found itself submerged in conflict.
Although Kipling supports the objective of imperialism, he identifies several flaws associated with it. Firstly, he refers to the duties of the empire as a “burden,” which portrays the negative aspects of imperialism. Secondly, he warns the reader that if he “take[s] up the White Man’s burden” (Kipling line 34), “the blame of those [he] better[s]” and “the hate of those [he] guard[s]” will haunt him. Even though he will supposedly be helping the uncolonized by imposing British rule upon them, they will blame him and hate him. Kipling tells the reader that the White Man’s burden is in fact a “burden”: it is a hardship that he takes upon himself for the sake and goodness of the uncolonized peoples.
It may seem like wars start abruptly, with little cause, but usually there is a bigger story. New policies, lack of equality, military influence, and too much government involvement usually stir up the peace initially. These turn the country or area into a ‘powder keg’, ready to explode into war at the smallest spark. Although the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the spark of World War I, policies at the time like nationalism and militarism were the underlying causes of the war.
The origins of World War One The Fritz Fisher thesis Fritz Fisher focuses on the Kaiser, Gottlieb von Jagow, Bethmann Hollweg and Helmut von Moltke. These four were the German leading figures at that time; Fischer is convinced that these people were responsible for the outbreak of World War One. Fischer’s three main claims were: 1. Germany was prepared to launch the First World War in order to become a great power. 2. Germany encouraged Austria-Hungary to start a war with Serbia, and continued to do so, even when it seemed clear that such a war could not be localized.
Causes of World War I in Relation to Current Conflicts As the war of the worlds collided between the more democratic Allies and the orthodox Central powers, there were numerous causes to the war in which they can be summed up into the –isms of modern analysis. In the 19th, 20th, and even the 21st century, almost all of the conflicts can be categorized into either one or a combination of those –isms. Nationalism and Extreme Nationalism One of the causes of World War I can be linked to the use of extreme nationalism. An easily abused method, nationalism proved worthy of a war during the Napoleonic Era.
Balkan nationalism was a major factor in the outbreak of the WWI .It is one of the long-term causes which caused European powers to declare war to each other. Even if the war between Austria and Serbia was expected to be a short one it culminated into a worldwide conflict that lasted four years. The idea of Pan-Slavism was the result of Serbian’s nationalism and Serbia refused to be oppressed by Austria-Hungary. Serbs demanded for rights of self-governance and unified state. However their neighbor Austria-Hungary wanted to become imperial power and she implied territorial expansion. Historians have different opinions about this subject and because of its complexity it is not possible to say that none of them is completely right. Balkan countries were a big threat for her foreign policy and this led to the culmination of their conflict and the outbreak of the war. Although nationalism is important in understanding the outbreak of WWI, there are many underlying causes that together culminated into a worldwide conflict. It is hard to reach the final answer on the question which relates to the extent of the importance of Balkan nationalism in the outbreak of the war because there are many different perspectives in understanding this question. For example Ruth Henig’s opinion is that Balkan nationalism was extremely important for the war and sees the guilt of Austria-Hungary for its outbreak. On the other hand John Leslie says that the responsible is Germany :“Austria-Hungary can be held responsible for planning a local Austro-Serb conflict, which was linked to its fears about Balkan nationalism, but Germany, which was not interested in this quarrel, quite deliberately used it as an opportunity to launch the European war which Austria-...
World War One or ‘The First World War’ as it became known, occurred due to many causes including the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and ideologies such as nationalism and militarism. The most obvious trigger for the war was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie on June 28, 1914. The assassination took place during the Archduke’s visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Archduke was targeted due to an ill feeling amongst Serbians that, once appointed to the throne, Ferdinand would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Just moments after the couple had been shot; authorities arrested the triggerman, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian student, who was believed to have been linked to the Serbian terrorist organization, The Black Hand.
The underlying cause of World War I was the build up of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism in the 1800s. The “three isms” caused this great war due to the outcry in which they caused within the countries and their citizens including military build up, severe nationalism, patriotism, and extending a country 's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
The thesis in the article ‘The origins of the World War’, by Sidney B. Fay, can clearly be stated as the explanation for World War I. Fay states that no one country is responsible for the creation of the war. Furthermore, he goes on to explain that each of the European country’s leaders did, or failed to do ‘certain’ things to provoke the other countries into a war. Fay states, “One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible. It was a dictum exacted by victors from vanquished, under the influence of the blindness, ignorance, hatred, and the propagandist misconceptions to which war had given rise.” (Fay, The Origins of the World War). His main arguments are his explanations of how each country was responsible for the creation of the war. His first explanation is that of how Serbia was partly responsible. Fay explains that Serbia knew that by not co-operating with the Austrian government over the implications of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassination they were indirectly preparing for a war they would fight but did not want. Fay says that Austria was more responsible for the war than any other power but not in military attack, but more in the form of self-defence. He makes it clear that Austria was justified in their battle and that they didn’t have to, “sit back and await the dismemberment at the hands of its neighbors.” (Fay, The origins of the World War). Fay believes that Berchtold wanted a local war with Serbia but knew and was content with the fact that the rest of Europe could very easily become involved with the war. Fay’s third country’s explanation was that of Germany. He believed that Germany did not want a war and tried to avert one completely. It is his belief that since Austria was Germany’s only dependable ally, they were dragged into the war. Furthermore, he explains that Germany’s geographical location, being in the middle of the conflict between France and Russia, they had little choice in the matter and had to defend their territory as well as Austria-Hungary’s. Fay’s fourth country and major power discussed, was Russia. He believed that Russia supported Serbia because of the frequent guidance and encouragement given at Belgrade, and if a war were to break out they would more than happy to fight along with the belief of France and Britain helping out. Furthermore, at the same ...
Bruce Lee once said, “Mistakes are always forgivable, if one has the courage to admit them” (“Bruce Lee”). During World War I, the mistake of Serbia killing the archduke was neither admitted nor forgiven. A series of events brought together the European continent into a bloody and unprecedented war. WWI depicts that a small error or miscommunication leads to a bigger issue and suffering of people as portrayed through the aftereffects of the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
In one of his most famous poems, Rudyard Kipling said, "Take up the white man's burden!" (146). He was only one of many who believed in the virtues of imperialism in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. During that period, imperialism was on the rise, and Africa was being swallowed up by competing European nations. The imperialists had many arguments supporting imperialism. They said it was beneficial and, in some cases, essential. Their arguments did not satisfy everyone, but that did not bother them. The justifications ranged from economics to social services, while touching on everything else in between (Hayes 222-3).
Take for example the quote “Your new-caught, sullen peoples” where one can particularly feel the emotions stir within oneself knowing the mutilation the “burden” imposes on foreigners. The foreigners act completely indifferent and unappreciative to the aid of the imperialists, who are bettering them whether they can tell or not. I also see this as moral justification for the invasion of Africa by Europeans for Africa’s known luxuries and Europe’s own benefits, which encouraged the United States to carry out similar acts of imperialism. Kipling was convincingly implying that it was the duty of the white men to civilize the
In conclusion, World War I was a global disaster that disrupted the peace in many different areas. Along with nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was a cause that sparked the horrific event of World War I. With the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were two opposing groups, and two specific clashing forces were Germany and Russia. Although an attempt to spread harmony throughout Europe was made, all it did was cause a much greater threat to the peace around the world.
During the nineteenth century, Great Britain was one of the richest countries in the world; the British were able to colonize numerous countries and gain profits from each of the countries. With brutality and torture, the British went into these countries to civilize the native people and to obtain goods and services from the locals’ hard work. Rudyard Kipling was a British writer who was born and raised in Bombay, India. Kipling saw sides of colonization that other western people were not able to see. “The White Man’s Burden” is a satirical poem written by Kipling that ridicules this Victorian concept known as imperialism.
Besides the assassination of the archduke there were four other reasons for the start of WW1. 1. Militarism- the building of large armies. All the nations in Europe at that time were engaged in what today could only be called an arms race. As soon as one nation built a new weapon, all the others followed suit. 2. Alliance System- The building of alliances to strengthen the borders of a country. In theses alliances if one country went to war all the other countries in the alliance were forced to go to war also. 3. Imperialism- The practice of colonizing other lands by large European nations. 4.Nationalism- The feeling of Patriotism in a country that makes it compete with all other counties in the area in all areas.
Imperialism sprung from an altruistic and unselfish aim to "take up the white man's burden"1 and “wean [the] ignorant millions from their horrid ways.”2 These two citations are, of course, from Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” and Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, respectively, and they splendidly encompass what British and European imperialism was about – at least seen from the late-nineteenth century point of view. This essay seeks to explore the comparisons and contrasts between Conrad’s and Kipling’s view of imperialism in, respectively, Heart of Darkness and “White Man’s Burden” and “Recessional.”