Molecular mechanisms of diabetes mellitus

1000 Words2 Pages

Understanding the complexity of the molecular and biochemical basis of impairment of insulin, along with microvascular disease in diabetes mellitus is accomplished in a method using conceptualization where taking into account the interactions, in the instance of insulin dysfunction and resistance, the interconnections, and correlations between glucose, insulin signaling, with associated molecules and substrates that regulate various tissues of metabolic Importance are key approaches in understanding such pathways. With the various molecules involved, participating in both normal, and dysfunctional pathways and mechanisms, the intracellular processing of the signal was provided by the inducer, in that of insulin where it would bind to the insulin receptor substrate, IRS. Other molecules, consisting of PK13, PKB, and PKC along with their derivatives and isotopes, were of also great importance due to the strong evidence of support that the dysfunction of these proteins in their homeostatic form contributed to the overall process of insulin resistance.
In regards to retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in patients with diabetes mellitus, the molecular basis and accreditation for the pathology that results is mainly due to the polyol pathway, in which glucose becomes reduced to sorbitol, consequently being converted into fructose. This mechanism becomes active when glucose levels become abnormally increased where the cellular level of toxicity occurs in diabetic hyperglycemia where the products of this pathway and the associated cofactors and substrates which contribute, such as aldose reductase in the rate-limiting step of the enzymatic pathway, demonstrate that the abnormalities that arise due to retinopathy are...

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...s highly polymorphic for the immune system, which include such molecules including HLA which is classified as the class 1 dimeric molecule proteins, with the intended function of presenting antigenic peptides to CD8, T lymphocytes. (Mark A. Atkinson, Noel K. Maclaren, 1994) Secondarily, HLA class II are also known to be dimeric, while their characteristic perception demonstrates constitutive expression or enhanced inducing on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The interaction occurring between a cell that would possess a molecule of HLA in contact with an antigenic peptide and T lymphocyte, with a receptor present, would demonstrate a process where the recognition of HLA and the peptide forming a complex, would result in the instigation of activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes where this immune response, underlies almost all immune response. (Mark A.

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