Malignant Neoplasm Or Malignant Cancer

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Cancer is medically known as malignant neoplasm or malignant tumor. It is characterized by abnormal or uncontrolled division & growth of cells, caused by pathological breakdown in the process of cell proliferation (Steward & Kliehues, 2003). The cells in our body grow normally and divide in a controlled way in order to keep the body functioning normal. When normal cells get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. However, this process may go wrong to generate new cells even when the body doesn't need them, or that the damaged cells may not die the way they should. The growth of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a lump, growth, or tumor. Thus, tumor is an outcome of the process involving successive generations of cells, which progressively advance towards cancerous growth. All tumors increase in size. Some of them grow quickly & others grow slowly. The rate of progression of tumor is governed both by mutagenic agents (tumor initiators) and by non mutagenic agents (tumor promoters) that effect gene expression, stimulate cell proliferation and alter the ecological balance of mutant and non mutant cells. The cancer cells frequently move and break from site of the mass or tumor and enter into the bloodstream thereby spreading the disease to other parts of the body and this process is called metastasis (Steward & Kliehues, 2003). Cancer is often defined as a disease that involves changes or mutations in the cell genome. These changes (DNA mutations) produce proteins that disrupt the delicate cellular balance between cell division and quiescence; resulting in cells that keep dividing to form cancers (Hejmadi 2010). Broadly, cancer can be grouped into following categories: Carcinoma - cancer that begins i... ... middle of paper ... ...ased on demographic changes in populations using UN figures along with crude assumptions about the likely trends in incidence rates for six cancers (Bray, Jemal, Grey, et al., 2012). 5, 55000 people died because of cancer in India in 2010, according to estimates published in The Lancet today (March 28, 2012) (Dikshit., et al 2012). While as in Kashmir, 8648 patients were registered at Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Soura, Srinagar, from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011. Esophageal cancer was found to be the most common cancer followed by cancers of Lung, Stomach, Colorectal, Breast, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Gastro esophageal junction, Ovary, Skin, Gallbladder, Multiple Myeloma, Acute Lymphoid Leukemia, Urinary Bladder, Prostate and Hodgkin's lymphoma (Rasool , Lone , Wani, Afroz , Zaffar, Mohib-ul Haq 2012).

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