The rebellions were supported by the Greek cities of Athens and Eretria, who were dissatisfied with the Persian tyrants. In 498 BS troops supported by the Greek city-states marched on Sardis and burnt it down. Unfortunately, this good start was the only offensive actions by the Ionians. On their return journey home from Sardis, they were attacked by the Persian troops and defeated at the Battle of Ephesus. During the Persians three pronged counter attack aimed at recapturing the areas around the center of the rebellion.
Ionia, a Greek city-state, was under Persian Rule at the time. They were unhappy about the Persian rule and revolted in 499 BC that led to the first invasion in Greece. Ionia asked Athens, Eretria, and Greek city-states for support. The Ionian army advanced toward the Persian Empire to the city of Sardis. After burning the city down, Athenian and Eretrianian allies went back home.
The tyrants contributed most in that they eliminated the presence of the aristocracy leaving each citizen to prove their worth by their service of the polis (84). Throughout this period, tyrants ruled their individual city-states, and allied themselves with other allies to prevent war (84). After the end of the dark ages, Polytheism arose as a central religion connecting Greek peoples (85). During this age, the polis was still apparent though differed tremendously between different states (87). Sparta and Athens, though powerful and influential Greek states were among these poleis and though they were perhaps, the most likely of the states to unite Greece both were unfit.
In 431 BCE a war broke out that lasted until 404 BCE with the collapse of Athens and the conquest of Sparta. After being passed down the thrown from his father, Alexander “the Great” quickly strengthened his power and then led a united Greece in a revengeful war and win against the Persians. Alexander did not live long enough to consolidate his empire. His generals, though, did divide the lands among themselves. Egypt became rich and powerful.
In early fifth century BC Greece, the Greeks consistently suffered from the threat of being conquered by the Persian Empire. Between the years 500-479 BC, the Greeks and the Persians fought two wars. Although the Persian power vastly surpassed the Greeks, the Greeks unexpectedly triumphed. In this Goliath versus David scenario, the Greeks as the underdog, defeated the Persians due to their heroic action, divine support, and Greek unity. The threat of the Persian Empire's expansion into Greece and the imminent possibility that they would lose their freedom and become subservient to the Persians, so horrified the Greeks that they united together and risked their lives in order to preserve the one thing they all shared in common, their "Greekness".
Alexander's army stormed the walls of the rebellious city of Thebes and demolished the city. About 30,000 inhabitants were sold in slavery. Alexander's action against Thebes discouraged, for a time, rebellion by other Greek cities With Greece under control, Alexander turned to his fathers plan for attacking the Persian Empire. In 334 B.C., he led an army of about 35,000 infantry and cavalry across the Hellespont from Europe to Asia.
After winning the Peloponnesian war, Sparta had become the most powerful polis in the Greek world. It will be shown that Sparta pursued its goal of dominance through the autonomy clause in the treaty of Antalcidas. Sparta abused the treaty and even broke it, creating the opposition that would eventually defeat them. Sparta, having won the Peloponnesian war (Xenophon, Hellenika 2.23), emerged as the pre-eminent Greek power at the beginning of the fourth century (Cargill 1981: 189). The member states of the Delian league were not freed as expected (Rhodes 2010: 160), but rather taken over and had oligarchic constitutions installed within them (Rhodes 2010: 238).
The Persians then marched to Athens for revenge. The Greeks defeated the Persian Navy at the battle of Salamis that same year proved to be turning point in the conflict and Xerxes withdrew most of his men in Asia. The finale battle of the Persian War was near Plataea in 479 B.C with Greeks winning. In 477 B.C, the Delian League was formed. The members were Greek city-states, who band together to protect themselves against future threats by the Persian Empire.
A mighty Persian fleet set sail for Greece, but met disaster in ferocious storms off the cape of Mount Athos in 492 B.C. Darius sent another force in 490 B.C. Accompanying Darius was Hippias, a former despot of Athens who was exiled in 510 B.C. Hippias maintained some support in Athens and hoped to once again rule the city, despite his age of 80. On this occasion the Persians sacked Eretria and moved into the bay of Marathon to strike Athens.
Rome was not known to be an independent culture. Rather, they took and used ideas from other cultures, especially Greece, as their own. “Even after Rome conquered Greece in 146 BCE, Greece could be said to ‘rule’ Rome, at least culturally” (Sayre 180). Rome is thought to have ruled Greece after their conquering, but in fact, Greece ruled by influencing Rome in many different aspects of Roman society. Some of the most influential elements adopted from Greece culture include art and architecture, citizenship and government, education, and mythology.