It asks why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. To design effective teaching environments, it believes, one needs a good understanding of what children already know when they come into the classroom. The curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on what the pupil already knows and is allowed to develop with them. Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems. This requires an understanding of children's cognitive development, and constructivism draws heavily on psychological studies of cognitive development (Rowland, 2010).
Cognitivist focuses on how people think, understand, and know, to solve problems and learn on the thinking domain. Learning becomes meaningful when it is connected to what already know. That is, when new information is connected to old knowledge. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Learners role are actively participated in the learning process.
When learning occurs, the goals, values, and beliefs of the individuals need to be linked to the new data. Also, in constructivism, the person, who is taking in the knowledge, can somehow filter, amend, and reformat the information that he or she feels is important to the schema (Spigner-Littles & Anderson, 1999). A constructivist learner uses the creative approach to apply their own meaning to a topic using the social and cognitive circumstances around themselves (Bloom; Perlmutter & Burrell, 1999). A short and sweet summary of constructivism is "how one attains, develops, and uses cognitive processes" (Airasian & Walsh, 1997). Constructivism versus Traditionalism There are methods that are considered very different than constructivism that are used in the classroom.
Generally, knowledge can be viewed as schema where mental constructions are organised in the mind. It is made possible when the learner is actively involved in the learning process and the actions exhibited afterwards are a result of thought which have been stimulated by the information which has been given to the individual. When designing a learning environment to fit this kind of theory, I will be able to encourage curiosity, provide inquiry oriented theme topics and present knowledge in a staged scaffolding. This theory provides knowledge as absolute and
(Glaring Facts, 2011) They perform those actions they believe will result in rewarding outcomes. People learn not only from their own experience but by observing the behaviors of others. Vicarious learning permits individuals to learn a novel behavior without undergoing the trial and error process of performing it. (Pajares, 2002) Enactive learning involves learning from the consequences of one’s actions. All behavior is followed by some consequence, but whether Social Cognitive Paper That consequence reinforces the behavior depends on the person’s cogn... ... middle of paper ... ...eone else being rewarded or punished for it.
The learner-centred approach, is a teaching strategy whereby learners are not inactive receivers of knowledge any longer; rather they are “active contributors in education and co-constructors of information” (Meece, 2003, pp.111). Learners are basically encouraged to learn through learner-centred teaching, there’s also a form of development in the learners’ capabilities to gain suitable problem solving methods (Weimer, 2002). Learner-centred approach signifies the formation of a setting created to encourage a learners learning through the use of their intellectual processing, behavioural adaptation and social engagement. Learner-centred education includes the way in which the mind operates. Some of the features
(Hughes, 2001). He also believed that we must understand the child’s understandings of the world, and this should guide the teaching practises and evaluation. The fundamental basis of learning was discovery. To understand is reconstruct by discovery, and such conditions must be compiled... ... middle of paper ... ...n essentials that teachers should undertake to help maintain a healthy constructivist classroom. It is important to hold a belief that learning is restructuring of thought rather than an increase in content, and reconstruction or recall will reflect that particular ‘schema’ of the child.
The work of the teacher is to find ways or approaches that will motivate learners to construct their knowledge based on prior knowledge, experience and their view of the real world. This theory rests on the assumption that knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their own experiences (Driscoll, 1994). The theory suggests that pupils, not the teacher, are the center and controller of learning. Instead of acquiring knowledge from the teacher, the pupil has multiple sources of information in the process of constructing knowledge (teacher, students, library, Internet, textbooks, etc.). From the perspective of constructivist theory, the use of technology in learning becomes more essential to fulfilling the demands of a constructivist approach.
The relevance to the dimension of quality is that it is possible to identify the features of courses that foster a surface or deep approach (Entwistle, 2000). In addition, learning is argued as an activity that combines the aspects of ‘what’ and ‘how’ and, most importantly, how the two aspects are integrated during the learning process. The ‘what’ aspect concerns the activity of learning, and the ‘how’ aspect concerns the structure of a learning task (how learning is done). How the two aspects are merged inform whether students employ a deep approach or a surface approach to learning (Ramsden, 2003). Thus, if learning is focused on the content, e.g.
Third, the Bruner’s Theory of Learning. In this theory, learners undergo the processes of acquisition, transformation and evaluation. Acquisition is the process of obtaining and assimilating with understanding new information better than a previously learned one. Transformation is the process of manipulating or utilizing the information gained to remove a difficulty or to solve a problem to which it is suited; while evaluation is the process of finding out whether the information acquired is appropriately utilized (Rhalmi, 2016). Concept Check Find the antiderivative or integral of the following: 1.