Kingdom of Morocco

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Officially KINGDOM OF MOROCCO, this country of northwestern North Africa lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. It borders Algeria to the east and southeast; Western Sahara is to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. There form of government now is a constitutional Monarchy with two legislative houses. Morocco’s official language is Arabic, and Islam is the official religion (99.8% of the nation is Islamic). The ethnic composition consists of 65% Arabic, 33% Berber, 2% other.
There are two international crises centering on France’s attempts to control Morocco and on Germany’s attempts to stop French power. In 1904 France had concluded a secret treaty with Spain concerning Morocco. They had agreed not to oppose Britain’s moves in Egypt in exchange for a free hand in Morocco. Germany however, insisted upon an “open-door” policy in the area; and, in a dramatic show of power, the emperor William II visited Tangier and, from his yacht on March 31, 1905, declared for Morocco's independence and integrity. The resultant international panic, the first Moroccan crises, was resolved in January-April 1906 at the Algerians Conference, where German and other national economic rights were upheld and where the French and Spanish were entrusted with the policing of Morocco. On Feb. 8, 1908, a further Franco-German agreement affirmed Morocco's independence while recognizing France's "special political interests" and Germany's economic interests in North Africa.

The Second Moroccan crises (1911) was brought on when the German gunboat Panther was sent to Agadir on July 1, 1911, allegedly to protect German interests during a local native uprising in Morocco but in reality to intimidate the French. This "Agadir Incident" sparked an outbreak of war talk during the summer and fall, but international negotiations continued, and the crisis subsided with the conclusion of the convention of Nov. 4, 1911. In which France was given rights to a protectorship over Morocco and, in return, Germany was given strips of territory from the French Congo. Spain at first objected; but, through the intervention of Great Britain, a Franco-Spanish treaty was concluded on Nov. 27, 1912, slightly revising the previous Franco-Spanish boundaries in Morocco. The negotiations of 1911-12 between the powers also resulted in the internationalization of the Tangier zone.
The sultan of Morocco, Muhammad V, became a focal point of nationalist aspirations.

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