Being able to determine the difference between normal and abnormal behavior is crucial in psychology, but how can someone judge someone’s sanity? It is difficult to put boundaries on such a “soft” area, but there are certain criteria to help in diagnosis. One factor is Bizarreness of the Behavior, which depends greatly on the context in which the behavior occurs. Another is Persistence of Behavior. People can show abnormal behavior without having a mental health problem. However when that abnormal behavior is exhibited on a regular basis, a mental health problem may be present. Another criterion is Subjective Distress, when people are aware of their own psychological difficulties and the distress it brings them. Psychological Handicap is the term used when the subject finds it impossible to be content with life because of their psychological troubles. These are all guidelines to help depict normal and abnormal behavior in psychology. David Rosenhan questioned whether these characteristics of mental health “reside in the patients or in the situations and contexts in which the observ...
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Mental health is not the mere absence of illness but it is the sense of harmony and balance for the individual. Aspects associated with the individual include self-worth, sense of accomplishment, and a positive identity (Fontaine, 2009), where as mental illness is the disharmony someone is experiencing. This disharmony affects not only the individual but their friends and family as well as the surrounding community. This disharmony causes the person to be unable to function properly in many aspects of their life (Fontaine, 2009). Disco Di started to display signs of mental illness from the young age of 12. Her behaviours may have been triggered by a traumatic event and have been interfering with her life ever since. I agree with the diagnosis that Disco Di was given which was an Axis I diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Axis II diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This paper is going to explain why I agree with these diagnoses as well as genetic and cultural factors and treatment method for them.
Exploring How Personal Accounts of Mental Distress Can Inform Professional Understanding and Benefit the Treatment Process This essay seeks to explore how personal accounts of mental distress
The idea of abnormality has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of psychology, particularly when attempting to outline a precise definition of psychological abnormality. Mental health conditions are a major public health issue, and 1 in 4 adults in Great Britain experience at least one diagnosable mental health condition in any one year (Singleton N, 2001). How we define the cause of and the nature of abnormal behaviour has significant effects on issues such as; how we approach treatments, the roles of clients and clinicians, the funding of research and it’s interpretation. Possibly more crucially ideas that are not explicit. For example, if you believe that the cause of abnormality is strictly physiological, you may fail to identify and address the impact of factors such as, social, gender and religion. This essay has been divided into four parts. The first part critically evaluates four definitions of abnormality, the second part analyses how psychological perspectives deal with the concept of abnormality. Next, the impact of culture is explored. Culture will be discussed separately as it permeates throughout all definitions and perspectives. Finally, conclusions regarding psychological abnormality will be outlined.
'On being sane in insane places' is a study by David Rosenhan in 1973 which attempted to test the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses and the treatment of those in psychiatric hospitals. He tested this by conducting a study in which eight 'sane' people attempted to gain admission into different psychiatric hospitals. They organised psychiatric appointments in which during their interviews they complained of hearing voices repeating the words "empty", "thud" and "hollow". Seven of the pseudo-patients were admitted under the diagnosis of schizophrenia and one under the diagnosis of manic depressive psychosis. Once admitted
American psychologist, D. L. Rosenhan wrote “On Being Sane in Insane Places” based on his findings from an experiment he conducted within psychiatric facilities. Rosenhan was interested in finding how credible these facilities are with how they diagnose patients. The experiment consisted of eight pseudopatients of different backgrounds who were admitted into twelve hospitals in five differents states across the country. Each of the pseudopatients set up an appointment claiming to have been hearing voices saying “empty,” “hollow, and “thud” (Rosenhan 251). Once admitted into the hospital’s psychiatric facility, the pseudopatients took detailed notes of their experience and how the staff interacted with the patients. With the hospitals not having
Responsibilities include determining the nature, cause, and possible effects of individual conflicts and distress, whether they are personal, social, or work related (Specialty, 1995). While judging disorders, clinical psychologists interview patients and observe their behavior in individual situations (Meggyes, 1998). Patient’s medical and social case histories are reviewed and then sometimes-suitable aptitude tests, personality tests, interest inventories, and achievement tests are given to the patient. Clinical psychologists work with people of all ages and maturation levels. On the other hand, they might focus their attention tow...
The Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality The psychodynamic model of abnormality is useful to an extent. However it has many weaknesses. The psychodynamic model of abnormality was initiated by Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was very interested in hysteria.
The Four Main Approaches to Defining Abnormality The statistical approach to defining abnormality analyses data collected from a population of people, and highlights rare and un-typical behaviour, which is then labelled abnormal. For a certain behaviour to be labelled ‘normal’ in a statistical point of view, it needs to be an average behaviour performed by the population in question. This is why labelling behaviours from culture to culture and place-to-place is very hard, as different places have different standards and morals to which you are expected to abide by. To statistically define a behaviour as ‘abnormal’, the percentage of people in a population exhibiting this particular behaviour must be 10% or less. Evaluating The Statistical Approach.
During this course on abnormal psychology, our class learned about psychological disorders and varying types of abnormal psychological functioning. Our textbook explored these disorders and relayed well-rounded information. In our online classroom, we watched several films and discussed questions related to each chapter’s content. I learned quite a bit from this coursework and it promoted me to think more deeply about the topics at hand. This course helped me to focus in on what within psychology I would like to pursue and learn more about. In addition to that, this online course also aided me in developing my time management and writing-on-demand skills. All in all, I enjoyed this course and feel I have gained quite a bit from it.
A mental disorder has been defined as a condition that affects or disrupts thinking, feeling and other psychological processes within an individual (Siegel, 2013; Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). This affect then leads to the individual behaving in a way that deviates from the social norm and causes deficiency in other areas of the individuals daily functioning, such as interpersonal communication skills (Siegel, 2013; Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). There are two models that help identify the factors that may result in a mental disorder. The first is known as the biopsychosocial model (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). This model suggests that genetic influences; learned ways of thinking, behaving and feeling; and other social systems which people grow up with play a part in whether or not the individual will manifest a mental disorder (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). The second model, the diathesis-stress model, suggests that an individual’s predisposition for psychopathology interacts with environmental factors. This means that the mental disorder will not appear unless traumatic events, deprivations or other stressors arise to trigger it (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). Therefore, this provides further knowledge as to how psychopathology is relevant to the understanding of mental disorders and the provision of treatment for those convicted of violent