He argues that historicism rejects political philosophy and is entrenched in the belief that human thought including scientific thought, is based on the grounds that cannot be validated by reason and come from historical era. In his book, ‘Natural Right and History’ he offers a complete critique of historicism as it emerges in the works of Hegel and Marx. He believes that historicism grew out of Christianity and was a threat to civic participation, as well as understanding the classical philosophers and religions. In his books he warns that historicism, and the resulted perceived Progress can lead to totalitarianism and democratic extremism. In his book, ‘On Tyranny’ he blames historicism for Nazism and Communism.
Throughout Thucydides’ works, it becomes evident of his belief that convention is needed to control nature because of the immense flaws of human nature. To understand Thucydides, it is essential to first understand how he was attempting to write. He was writing the History of the Peloponnesian War in an effort to be objective, which could be compared to attempts by modern science. However, Thucydides’ accounts provide insight into his personal opinions that he held and viewed during this bloody war. His opinion of human nature becomes clear in the origins of the war, the Melian Dialogue, the plague, the Mytilenean Debate, the civil war at Corcyra, and the murder at Mycalessus.
Though subjective, there are core ideals that unite the beliefs of all philosophy, such as the idea of the self. Philosophers arise not to answer questions, but to question the questions in order to find enlightenment. The search for self is a difficult journey as it is a heavily debated subject matter with no definite clarification. Ultimately, the most important question of philosophy is: “What makes you, you?” The studies of self relates to the fundamental assumptions of human nature. Every discussion about “life or death [in philosophy] talks about the physical body and the human consciousness” with relations to rationality or irrationality” (Velasquez, 51).
The scientific method was that of phenomenological reduction. Although Søren Kierkegaard accepted the paradox of being defining itself, as a scientist, Heidegger could not accept this paradox. According to Heidegger, a concept must be defined without using itself as reference. The difficulty of definition was confronted by defining Being as a collection of concepts. In his essay “The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics”... ... middle of paper ... ...r own histories, their struggles with purpose and meaning, and the plight of their thrownness create a compelling and emotionally engaging novel that resemble the insecurities and consciousness of our own lives.
Both philosophers encompass the notion of the State of Nature in their writings, which ultimately foster slightly varying viewpoints and perspectives with regards to political obligation as a whole. These writings have ultimately paved the way for our perceptions of political obligation today, as this has now become a very pertinent topic in modern society. In Leviathan, Hobbes focuses primarily on the notion that those who fail to abide by the law may impose a severe threat to society as a whole, and that without the law, society dissolves into a “nasty, brutish, and short” state. This is the very essence of the State of Nature. Locke, meanwhile, in his Second Treatise of Government, shares a similar perspective to Hobbes, but claims that there is a median point in between peace and war.
Kant’s deontological ethics is grounded on concepts of duty, the categorical imperative, and good will. Similarly, Arendt utilizes Kant’s categorical imperative and idea of duty to share her account of Adolf Eichmann’s trial. She recognizes that even though Eichmann attempted to live according to a Kantian definition of duty, his behavior did not fit Kant’s moral precepts. Mill, contrastingly, holds a teleological philosophy and uses the concept of consequentialism and utilitarianism to argue against Kant’s morality. In any case, the three philosophers bring thoughtful ethical philosophical concepts which provide new ways to analyze moral conflicts.
In existential thought ethics displace morals because ethics relate to the existentialist’s primary concern: the individual. Finding the underlying values common to existentialists allows an understanding of the basic substructure of existential philosophy. There is a se... ... middle of paper ... ...is/her actions, including his/her effect on others. The existentialist must confront how their personal decision making is reflected in world issues, such as hunger, pollution, and ethnic cleansing. As to Mary Warnock’s "mood": ha!
When this happens, Hume and Durkheim comprehended the struggle to live could only be due to society’s empire on top of ethics. The way we live is centered on what is good and bad. So suicide is a direct reaction to the discontinuity of ethics within a being. Works Cited Durkheim, Emile. “Suicide and Modernity.” Social Theory: The Multicultural, Global, and Classic Readings.
Bertrand Russell’s essay addresses many issues concerning philosophy. In the writing, he states philosophy’s nature, value, and criticisms. The essay explains these aspects of the study of philosophy in relatively different ways. The main idea for establishing value in his essay is by explaining how it is best obtained, and its effect on other people. The essay continues with his criticisms of those who opposed philosophy and live their lives based on concrete, solid facts.
There is a second sense of nihilism that appears as an outgrowth of the first that Nietzsche appeals to in his critique of values. It contends that not only does an active, pious, acknowledgment of a divinity foster nihilism, but also, the disingenuous worship of a deity that has been replaced in the life man by science, too, breeds a passive nihilism. Christianity Nietzsche conceives the first variety of nihilism, that fostered through active worship, as pernicious due to its reinforcement of a fundamental attitude that denies life. Throughout his life Nietzsche argued the contemporary metaphysical basis for belief in a deity were merely negations of, or tried to deny, the uncertainties of what is necessarily a situated human existen... ... middle of paper ... ...if a man is sincere and in full possession of his faculties, he will never wish to have it over again, but rather than this, he will much prefer absolute annihilation” (WWI 589). Schopenhauer's pessimism has some roots in our inability to adequately satisfy our wants.