Jean Baptiste Lully was a prolific composer who is best known for establishing French Opera. (Boynick) Born in Florence on the 28th of November 1632, (Boynick) Giovanni Battista Lulli was a miller’s son. (Sadie 2000 pg 166) Lully first arrived in France in March of 1646 (Jean Baptiste Lully) to work as an attendant for a female courtier. (Sadie 2000 pg. 166) “During his six years in her household, Lully, already an expert at the guitar and violin, polished his skills as a performer and composer.” (Straughan (a)) He made a name for himself as a dancer in the court ballets.
Tchaikovsky is one of the most beloved composers in history. An inspired craftsman of melody, orchestration and tonal color, he wrote in an astonishing variety of musical forms, from symphonies to ballet scores to concertos (Sadie, 94). His life and work are the stuff of legend, and his personal struggles are almost as well recorded today as the methods by which he created his music (Osborne, 77). He was born in Votkinsk, Russia in 1840, and was initially trained in music by a French governess (Mason, 70). At ten, he moved to St. Petersburg, where he studied law and enrolled in jurisprudence school (Ewen, 72).
They astonished their audiences wherever they performed. In London Wolfgang wrote his first symphonies and met Johann Christian Brahm, who had a very large influence on him. In Paris Wolfgang published his first works, four sonatas for clavier with accompanying voilin. In 1768 he composed his first opera, La Finta Semplice, which was presented for the first time a year later in his home town of Salzburg. In 1769 Wolfgang and his father set out on another tour of Italy.
In 1762, Mozart and his elder sister Maria Anna (best known as Nannerl) who was also a gifted keyboard player, were taken by their father on a short performing tour, of the courts at Vienna and Munich. Encouraged by their reception, they embarked the next year on a longer tour, including two weeks at Versailles, where the children enchanted Louis XV. In 1764 they arrived in London. Here Mozart wrote his first three symphonies, under the influence of Johann Christian Bach, youngest son of Johann Sebastian, who lived in the city. In Paris, Mozart published his first works:four sonatas for clavier: with accompanying violin in 1764.
After about a year in Rome Luigi and his father were asked to go to Vienna to play in the orchestra of the imperial capital at the court theatre. "Luigi and his father stayed with the Imperial theatre from December 1757 to October 1758" (Rothschild 9). After leaving Vienna, Luigi returned to his studies in Rome. Again Luigi and his father returned to play in the orchestra. Luigi then returned to Lucca in the spring of 1760.
Wishing to secure a better position outside Salzburg, he obtained permission to undertake another journey in 1777. With his mother he traveled to France, where he composed the Paris Symphony (1778); he could find no permanent position, however. His mother died in Paris. When he returned to Salzburg he was given the position of court organist (1779) and produced a splendid series of church works, including the famous Coronation Mass. He was commissioned to compose a new opera for Munich, Idomeneo (1781), which proved that he was a consummate master of opera seria.
When the curtain rose on the night of the premiere, Mozart realized how successful his opera would become (Opera America Center). With the success of The Magic Flute, Mozart was just beginning to become financially stable when an illness brought his life to an end in December of 1791. Contemporary scholars still debate Mozart’s purpose for composing this opera; they do not know whether he completed this work due to his financial situation, his desire to spread his radical ideas, or his love for composing. Historians believe Mozart created this work solely to express his ideas regarding the German Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was known as “The Age of Reason,” a time where people began to use to logic to question preconceived theories.
He completed his first symphony at the age of nine and publishing his first sonatas in the same year. In 1769, Mozart and his father left the rest of the family to tour Italy for more than a year. They spent sufficient time in Rome, Milan, Florence, Naples, and Bologna. Mozart got to experience the taste of another culture. During those years, Wolfgang completed an opera called "Ro di Ponto," which was celebrated in Italy.
The heroic tale of Orpheus and his journey to the underworld was used for a number of operas during the 1600s, with two specific versions catching the audience’s attention. Jacopo Peri, whose opera of the Orpheus legend was first performed in October of 1600, was created for King Henry IV of France and his marriage with Maria de Medici. Its original intentions were to be private and rarely performed, but composer Jacopo Corsi offered to provide help in paying Peri’s staging costs. Claudio Monteverdi, inspired by Peri’s recitative style, wrote Orfeo for it to be performed during the Carnival at Mantua on February 24, 1607. Monteverdi’s opera, funded by Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga of Mantua, was already written for public presentation, and because of it quickly caught interest and continued to be used since its first performance, especially after being republished with alterations in its ending.
During this time Handel traveled Italy meeting many great musicians of the day including Corelli, Scarlatti, and Domencio. He returned back to Germany in 1710 in which he took a position as music director for George Ludwig of Hanover, later that year he went back to England where is opera Rinaldo was being preformed. 2 It became a huge success and his popularity grew, it was around this time when he became a composer for Queen Anne. 3He produced an English ode for the Queens’s birthday and also Te Deum, in celebration of Peace of Utretch. After the death of Queen Anne King George I was then crowned.