Third Stage: Initiative versus Guilt 4-5 years In this stage, cultural or values of the family members give children an important impact for their growth. Children are actively in different kind of physical activities, their muscle movement and perception is getting stable, they know how to use language and create creativity. They like to copy others as well as feel curious about all the things around them and started to ask lots of questions. In this stable stage, children started know how to use their physical ability to do many things such as hit their friends or scold people. Children will aways ask: Is it okay for me to do what i do? If they encouraged to do, and adult give them lots of chances to engage activity with freedom they will feel happy and initiative to explore the environment around them. In the meantimes, their language ability will improve speedy, they use language to get new information and the initiative stimulate children's sense of communication or …show more content…
Erikson stated that the development of children between 5 to 12 years old mostly happen in school and they are using social interaction frequently. School is the place to train children to adapt to society and master their knowledge and skills which is necessary for life in the future. So children in this stage are trying their best to strengthen their muscle, sensory and physical skills in order to overcome all the challenges form the society. Children in this stage realise that they need to have some result in this society, they work very hard to get the distinction in their result, but they are also worry that they will fail. In this stage, if they get encourage for their hardworking, specially from parent, teacher, peers or neighbour, they will feel industrious, competence and belief in their skills. If they get too much negative feedback, they start to feel inferior and lose
Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theory, and “he describes our social experiences during our whole life span using eight different stages” (Cherry 2015). The first four stages are “trust vs. mistrust; which describes how the child needs to be able to trust their adult figures, autonomy vs. shame and doubt; which is about person control, initiative vs. guilt; which is about children learning to lead others, industry vs. inferiority; which is about gaining a sense of pride in things” (Cherry 2015). The final four stages are “identity vs. confusion; which begins the sense of self, intimacy vs. isolation; which explores personal relationships, generativity vs. stagnation; which focuses on career and family, and the final stage being integrity vs. despair; which describes reflecting back on life” (Cherry
Eric Erikson developed eight different psychosocial stages which emphasize the lifespan development during the major periods in life. The first psychosocial stage is infancy and it embraces the age of birth to one year old. The infancy crisis is trust versus mistrust which emphasizes that if children are taken care of; they will be able to gain confidence as well as trust. In the other hand, if they developed mistrust they will develop a sense of insecurity. Erickson’s second stage is toddlerhood which embraces the ages of one to three and deals with the stage crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt. In the toddlerhood stage, toddlers are able to use mental skills and are able to start deciding for themselves. The third stage is early childhood, and it embraces the ages of three to six with the stage crisis of initiative versus guilt. During the early childhood stage children are able to gain the characteristics of ambition and responsibility and it is developed through the parent’s support. On the other hand if parents are too demanding children will develop guilt. The next stage is middle adulthood which ranges in the ages of six to eleven; children are able to develop the characteristic cooperation but, inferiority can also arise with negative experiences which can cause a stage crisis of industry versus i...
Erikson believed that this stage happens from ages 6-11. This is when kids are becoming proud of the good deeds and the things they are able to do. This is also when kids are able to do more difficult things than before, and because of this they try to accomplish more and different skills. If a child does not get no praise or no encouragement then they will start to question what they can or cannot do. Erikson believed that encouragement and praise is very important in this stage because if it is not given then the kids’self-confidence will become low. Success of this stage is when the child is proud of what they can do, also while failure of this stage is when the child feels
2. The quality of the parent-child relationship was so important to Erikson because he believed that the infancy stage was the most critical stage of development. Parents allow their children to adventure out and examine the limitations of their abilities in a reassuring environment. In stage 1 (Trust versus Mistrust) Erikson would have encouraged the basic strengths of making sure that the parents were consistent with meeting the needs of their children. During the second stage (Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt) Erikson encouraged the parents to support the independence of their child and allow their children to make their own choices. Also in this second stage Erikson encouraged the parent not to be over-bearing and not allow the child to be independent and to be more dependent on the parent. During the third stage (Initiative versus Guilt), Erikson would encourage the parent to let their child examine and explore and let their child know that they should make suitable decisions. The last stage, stage 4 which is Industry versus Inferiority. Erikson encourages the parent to give their child positive reinforcement when they are performing different activities such as writing and
In matter of relationships, I have only few friends; I tend to be very selective in the circle in which I move, and I do not welcome all types of people into my world. According to Erik Erikson theory of personality, I have been significantly influenced by the stage four: industry vs. inferiority. According to this theory, these behaviors might have an explanation that goes back from my childhood. Erikson points out that at stage four, children need to be reinforced positively for activities at school, in sports, or artistic fields in order to cultivate a high self-concept and a meaning of industriousness. If the child 's efforts are perceived as inadequate, feelings of social and mental inferiority can move stealthily into adulthood, (Maitland,
Erik H. Erikson was a significant psychologist that greatly changed the field of child development. In the 1950’s, Erikson advanced a Freudian approach in development. He viewed that social development as a series of eight challenges that people have to overcome. Each challenge has an outcome that’s either favorable or unfavorable. The outcome drastically affects a person’s personality. For example, in a favorable outcome, the result can leave a positive feeling. With a positive outlook, it’s easier for a person to cope with challenges in life. An unfavorable outcome can leave a person at a disadvantaged for the future. During the first couple challenges, Erikson believed that the caregiver has a great impact on a child’s development (Romero).
Junior was born in May of 2012. He is currently four years old and is the only child of Eva and Charlie. Within the next month, Junior will be the big brother to Eva and Charlie’s second child, a baby boy. Eva and Charlie are economically classified as a middle class caucasian family. Charlie is employed by the Air Force and Eva is a stay at home mom. Charlie is currently deployed and is scheduled to be back the day the baby is born. Both Eva and Charlie are college educated and have been married for five years.
In Erickson’s Stages of Development a child in middle childhood, (or children from age six to age eleven), move through the industry versus inferiority stage. This stage is marked by the child working to gain new skills and in general just being productive (Click P. M., Parker J., 2002, p. 89). A child who is successful in their attempts will gain confidence in themselves and move on into adolescence firmly on the industrious side. A child who is not successful in acquiring the skills they try will move on to the adolescent stage with the mindset that they are inferior to their peers.
1. For Erikson children early experiences are very important for their social, emotional, and mental development outcome. There are different stages that the child go through, and based on the way of each developmental stage the child will define his/her personality strength or weaknesses affecting the next stage as well.
Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development were complex, but simple. It is something everyone will go through and experiences will always be different. The lack of reinforcement to the positive aspects of his stages can lead to quite a disaster. Surprisingly, previous stages are highly influential to the proceeding stage. The lack of reinforcement to the positive aspects of his psychosocial stages can have a very devastating effect on a person. This is because the effects built up rather than taking the place of one another. The effects are quite horrifying, but with the right environment, experiences and beliefs, everything can go well.
Initially, Erikson’s stages described a child’s developmental growth during each period. Learning about Erikson and the limitations of each period made me realize that one has to treat separate children differently in every stage. Also, Erikson explains that each stage can affect a child negatively or positively depending on the caregiver and others around the child. Of course Erikson also says not everything one does can be perfect. Learning the complexity of each stage a child enters affects the next. Therefore, raising a child is extremely difficult because one has to adjust to their needs before one’s own. It made me realize that raising a child according to Erikson is not an easy task; even one mistake can lead to consequences. For instance, during the Identity versus Role Confusion a teenager begins to wonder who they are as a person and how to fit into society. If a child comes out of this stage knowing his/her identity then adulthood would not be difficult whatsoever. On the other hand, if teenagers do not know their identity then they would enter adulthood confused about themselves. This identity vs. role confusion role has taught me to appreciate and understand teenagers better therefo...
As children grow towards adolescence they go through many stages of development. Child development refers to the stages of physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and language growth that occurs from the birth to beginning of adulthood. All aspects of a child's development may be affected by many different factors, including a poor learning environment, lack of social interaction, cultural background differences, abuse, and loss of a parent. All of the before mentioned examples can affect the child's maturation, "a biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience" (Myers 172). Children grow and mature at very different rates, some faster than others, which is why it is necessary to understand the importance of the different types of child development. Though all parts of child development are important, it is probably language learning that is most important to a child's development as a whole.
The first stage, which happens between birth and 18 months, is trust vs. mistrust. During this stage, an infant is confused about the world being a safe place and wonders if his or her needs will be met. As a result, the infant looks to the primary caretaker for consistent care and hope that his or her needs can be met. Erikson explains that those that receive constant care during this stage will develop a sense of trust. The basic virtue in this stage is hope. The second stage of this theory is autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which happens between 18 months and 3 years. During this stage, there is an increase in mobility and independence. Erikson explains that it is critical to allow the child to explore their limits and allow failure. The basic virtue in this stage is will. Initiative vs. Guilt that happens between 3 and 5 years is the stage that follows. During this stage, children take more initiative to engage with peers. Erikson explains that during this stage if children are given the opportunity to take initiative, they will develop a sense of security in their ability to lead. The basic virtue in this stage is purpose. Industry vs. Inferiority, which happens between 5 and 12 years, emphasizes school and friendships. Erikson believes that during this stage, children will seek approval from others by displaying skills that are valued by others. Additionally, he believes that if
A significant part of development is the middle childhood. The middle childhood is largely centered on the development of a child’s inter-personal relationships, cognitive skills, personality and motivation. Children learn about their environment around the middle childhood. Integration is a task concerned with the primary developmental of child in the middle childhood. Physical development which happens during the middle childhood is not as dramatic as in early or late childhood. Growth might be usually slow ti late childhood life. Kids at this period usually relay on skills which they acquired in early childhood and these skills prepare them for the next stage of their cognitive development, the middle childhood. Skills like the hands-on
In conclusion we can safely say that Erikson's psychosocial stages of human development made various contributions to the study of human development. The theory offers a useful framework for analyzing developmental histories. The theory helps create interest and research on human development through the lifespan. It also assists care givers to adopt the correct parenting styles that can yield positive results. Critics of Erikson's theory say that his theory is more applicable to boys than to girls, and that more attention is paid to infancy and childhood than to adult life, despite the claim to be a life-span theory. Critics also say that single words can be misleading and rarely convey much meaning whilst others say that the universality of his theory can and must be questioned.