Urbanization brought a widening of the gap between the poor and the rich. Nineteenth century American industrialization relied upon poverty and immigration for its success. Industrialization grew due to an increase of workers and cheap labor. The ideal of success in business and prosperity fueled the rise in immigration. Immigrants came in search of riches but they were soon to find out that wealth was not what they received.
Mark Twain once called Industrialization an, “Era of incredible Rottenness.” Industrialization had both negative effects and positive effects on city life. While big businesses thrived, the gap between the rich and poor grew larger day by day. Progressive reformers sought to close this gap and bring together the nation. Industrialization was very beneficial to American business owners. Following the civil war, industries transformed into modern powerhouses.
The Industrialization Impact In the history of the United States, it can be argued that the economic change that occurred in the midst of industrialization was the foremost change that led to us becoming a world power. This change began with the newfound desires of U.S. companies to do things efficiently, and the invention of newer machines such as the cotton gin enabled them to do so. These inventions made many industries that were becoming unprofitable more profitable again, and gave the economic boost that the U.S. economy needed. With increased efficiency and the lowering of costs, many factories blew up around the country, and thousands of jobs were created. People began to migrate to these newly established urban areas around factories, seeking opportunity, steady income to feed their families, and a way to move out of poverty.
In conclusion, the Industrial Revolution changed the lives and economies of many countries. Even though the factory conditions were poor and women and men were still unequal the rise of industry was needed. More people were able to afford certain goods and urbanization increased. The rise of the working and middle class also helped shape many economies. Industrialization was a significant factor that helped lead society into the modern era.
“Between 1870 and 1914, the lot of industrial workers improved dramatically. Wages rose significantly. In Britain and France, wages nearly doubled in the last half of the 1800’s.”(beers, p.81) as these changes happened family members that were working were able to buy twice as... ... middle of paper ... ...s, and recreational activities were opened up for when people weren’t working. In London Sir Robert Peel helped to establish the first police force in that city being able to keep everyone on track. From the time that the industrial revolution started to by the time it ended the rise of labor unions, gains for workers, and improving city life had a huge impact on the industrial revolution.
Many worked to help support their families, and by doing so, they forwent their education. Numerous nineteenth century reformers and labor groups sought to restrict child labor and to improve working conditions. The Industrial Revolution was a major factor involving child labor. It was during this time that America had entered a great boom of prosperity, and there was an excessive demand for many products that steadily became cheaper, the more that was produced. Because of supply over demand, there was a great increase in available jobs within factories.
The federal government supported big businesses by way of high tariff policies and cutbacks in the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). From 1922-1929, the national income was up 40% from $60.7 billion to $87.2 billion (The Roaring Twenties). Also, the War stimulated a number of old industries, such as petroleum and steel, and helped create a host of new industries, such as plastic and rayon production; nonetheless, the total annual expenditure of money spent on new machinery for industry in 1918 was $2.5 billion, compared to $600 million in 1915 (Schultz). Furthermore, the use of labor saving machinery in factories and on farms enabled workers to produce more goods faster and less expensively, which led to higher amounts of production and worker productivity, thereby raising the wages of workers (The Roaring Twenties). Many new businesses became preeminent and prosperous during the 1920's, such as the steel industry, department stores, and the automobile industry.
The greatest and most significant development of this era was industrialization. “The phenomenal boost in manufacturing production,” Chambers said, “Came from a triple revolution: in transportation and communication, in production, and in marketing.” However, this shift did not occur because Americans found factory work more appealing, but the prospect of successfully supporting one’s self and one’s family began to diminish as urban wages surpassed those of rural areas. Although these jobs paid more, the work was monotonous, the hours were long, the managers were demanding and the now widespread title of “employee” suggested an unwanted reliance on the wage system—a direct contrast to the self-sustaining lifestyles of previous generations. Even more frightening were the unsafe and unregulated factory conditions, which led the United States to have the highest accident rates in the industrial world. Regardless of safety concerns, Industrial demand continued to rise throughout the era, and the country responded with a steady supply of workers.
Throughout the Progressive Era (1890-1928) poverty, industrialization and high immigration levels induced child labor and over-populated tenements in New York. Efforts to alleviate the effects of poverty among working-class and poor families through direct action and government reform became known as “progressivism.” Industrialization seemed to be a good thing; it offered more jobs which in turn seemed to offer more money and would cause more spending to support the economy. The construction of railroads was the nation’s first big business. The development of a nationwide railroad network had the greatest impact on American economic life. But in many industries like railroads and mining, the work was very dangerous and life threatening, so much to the point that an estimated twenty percent of those who worked in these industries quit their jobs, but with high immigration levels, these jobs were reassigned to those who needed the extra income such as children, though to a certain extent.
Growth also led to social disruptions that compounded tensions and overproduction in the 1890s led to unemployment and calls to restructuring the American economy. The second industrial revolution was occurred in the late 19th century. Industry, science, and technology had a great impact all over the world, European, Japanese, and North American nation-states benefited form the new advancements that came into existence. New equipment and assets, such as steel and electricity, greatly enhanced efficiency. The need for inexpensive labor and natural materials increased those items that were not natural to Europe such as rubber and led were in higher demand.