Farmers, who were once self-employed, were rapidly becoming factory workers. In 1860 half the nation was self-employed, but by 1900 two-thirds were dependent on wages. This trend caused the rapid urbanization of America, which brought out some issues. Wages were rising, so it was good to be working, but with dependent wages the workers we’re susceptible to economic downturns. The workplace also became much less personable as people began to move to factory jobs.
In the late nineteenth century known as the Gilded Age (or the Reconstruction period) and the early twentieth century known as the Progressive era, the nation went through great economic growth and social change. Beginning from the 1870s, there was rapid growth in innovations and big businesses. This could be because there was population growth and when there is population growth, there is a high demand of products and other necessities in order to strive in society. Many immigrants from Europe, mostly from the eastern and southern Europe, and Asia moved to American cities. Additionally, farmers from rural America desired to increase economically in society and since corporations ruled and political problems occurred, they decided to move into the cities.
The rising of the market economy occurred between the end of the War of 1812 and the Civil War. It was a time of uprising for Americans of the United States. There were changes in the vast improvement in transportation, the growth of factories, and there were important developments of new technology that increased agricultural production. Americans advanced into new areas and produced an agricultural surplus that went to market farming. In the nineteenth century, manufacturing was the most important factor because it brought about industrialization.
An outburst in growth of America’s big city population, places of 100,000 people or more jumped from about 6 million to 14 million between 1880 and 1900, cities had become a world of newcomers (551). America evolved into a land of factories, corporate enterprise, and industrial worker and, the surge in immigration supplied their workers. In the latter half of the 19th century, continued industrialization and urbanization sparked an increasing demand for a larger and cheaper labor force. The country's transformation from a rural agricultural society into an urban industrial nation attracted immigrants worldwide. As free land and free labor disappeared and as capitalists dominated the economy, dramatic social, political, and economic tensions were created.
In the period 1865-1900, technology, government policy, and economic conditions all greatly changed American agriculture at the expense of the farmers. New farming machinery had a large role in the late 19th century, giving farmers the opportunity to produce a surplus of crops. The railroads also had a large influence on agriculture. Although they were able to quickly transport goods, the railroads were also used to charge the farmers large fees. The booming industry also changed American agriculture, creating a multitude of monopolies which the farmers simply could not compete.
Second, the railroad created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners. Third, the railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities. Finally, by making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs. Also, railroads lured city dwellers to resorts in the countryside. In conclusion, the industrial revolution brought many changes to Britain.
As stated by Steven Kreis in Lecture 17, “England proudly proclaimed itself to be the "Workshop of the World," a position that country held until the end of the 19th century when Germany, Japan and United States overtook it.” A major cause for the Industrial Revolution was the enormous spurt of population growth in England. The increase in population meant that there were more people in surplus from agricultural jobs, and they had to find work in industrial factories. Enclosure brought forth a great increase in farming production and profits. Farming was improved through the use of crop rotation, enclosures, and the division on farms across England. Crops that were grown consisted of turnips, barley, clover, wheat.
The Industrial Revolution. The industrial revolution took place in the late 18th century, and the most changes were in the fields of agriculture, transportation and the country’s economic growth. It then spends widely throughout Europe, North America and the rest of the world. First of all, the industrial revolution was an enormous time in the history. The employment was on a rise and reached a peak.
From the late 17th century to the early 19th century, industrialization was occurring in the United States and around Europe. The abundance of raw materials and the ambition of business men caused the industrialization before and after the Civil War. The First Industrial Revolution and Second Industrial Revolution, known as the Technological Revolution, caused the United States to thrive throughout those years because of population increase and all the new products or ideas there was. In the 1900s, the United States became the leading industrial power in the world because of both revolutions; the first revolution led into the second revolution because of the technology and economic changes occurring. The First Industrial Revolution changed agriculture customs and the Second Industrial Revolution caused changes in production techniques, but both helped the United States industrialize and become the most successful country in the world.
Railroads were the big business of the mid-nineteenth century. The rail companies employed thousands of people and ran operations nationwide. The railroad transformed American society from a rural, agrarian society to an urban, industrialized one. The railroads contributed to an economic boom which pulled millions of peasant immigrants from southern and eastern Europe in search of job opportunities and a better life. However, this same industry took advantage of a vast labor surplus and exploited its workers.