In the late eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution made its debut in Great Britain and subsequently spread across Europe, North America and the rest of the world. These changes stimulated a major transformation in the way of life, and created a modern society that was no longer rooted in agricultural production but in industrial manufacture. Great Britain was able to emerge as the world’s first industrial nation through a combination of numerous factors such as natural resources, inventions, transport systems, and the population surge. It changed the way people worked and lived, and a revolution was started. As stated by Steven Kreis in Lecture 17, “England proudly proclaimed itself to be the "Workshop of the World," a position that country held until the end of the 19th century when Germany, Japan and United States overtook it.” A major cause for the Industrial Revolution was the enormous spurt of population growth in England.
The rising of the market economy occurred between the end of the War of 1812 and the Civil War. It was a time of uprising for Americans of the United States. There were changes in the vast improvement in transportation, the growth of factories, and there were important developments of new technology that increased agricultural production. Americans advanced into new areas and produced an agricultural surplus that went to market farming. In the nineteenth century, manufacturing was the most important factor because it brought about industrialization.
From the late 17th century to the early 19th century, industrialization was occurring in the United States and around Europe. The abundance of raw materials and the ambition of business men caused the industrialization before and after the Civil War. The First Industrial Revolution and Second Industrial Revolution, known as the Technological Revolution, caused the United States to thrive throughout those years because of population increase and all the new products or ideas there was. In the 1900s, the United States became the leading industrial power in the world because of both revolutions; the first revolution led into the second revolution because of the technology and economic changes occurring. The First Industrial Revolution changed agriculture customs and the Second Industrial Revolution caused changes in production techniques, but both helped the United States industrialize and become the most successful country in the world.
The GDP’s newfound growth was both a cause and effect of the Industrial Revolution. Economic changes allowed people to buy more and growing populations led to heightened demand for goods. Inventions accelerated trade phenomenally by producing new products for the masses, and making old luxuries available to the public. Yet, the Industrial Revolution was only the beginning of a long and challenging path to civilized life for most Americans. “In the first decades of the Industrial Revolution, the standard of living of the factory workers was shockin... ... middle of paper ... .... Watt, James.
The Industrial Revolution was a drawn-out process that transformed Britain’s economy from the production of goods by hand to the production of goods by machine (Thackerary 1). During this time the number of people employed in industrial manufacturing, making many different goods, and especially making textiles, iron goods, metal waves, and pottery increased dramatically (McCloskey Int.). At the end of the 17th Century, Britain owed more to revenue demands than protectionism. After the Bubble Act of 1720, company flotation was prohibited and publically raised the capital in manufacturing (Mathias 33,34). The increase of social cost of transition to the increasingly industrial urbanized economy was due to the lack of public control over growing towns and the lags of development of essential public services, from small denomination currency to an effective police force and local government.
The Market Revolution transformed various aspects of American society because of the development of new inventions, ideologies, and lifestyles. From 1790 to 1840, the improvement of national transportation methods, the commercialization of the American market system, and the beginning of industrialization fostered the Market Revolution and affected the country economically, socially, and even religiously. The Industrial Revolution occurred in Western European countries such as France, England and Germany beginning in 1760 and completely altered the European market, workplace, and society by the time the inventions and technological ideas diffused into the United States. In 1791, Alexander Hamilton expressed “the necessity of enlarging the sphere of our domestic commerce”1 and therefore supported and funded American industries. With the help of the government, the Market Revolution initiated the expansion of the marketplace due to the connection of distant communities, such as western cities with seaboard cities, for the first time due to the advances in infrastructure.
The Industrial Revolution “transformed the daily lives of Americans as much as—and arguably more than—any single event in U.S. history”. It was marked by significant advances in technology and industry that had broad and enduring impacts. Even though the start of the industrial revolution is said to have begun in the first half of the 19th century, the real industrialization of America did not begin until after the Civil War. The American economy accelerated its growth after the Civil War as it entered “The Second Industrial Revolution,” generally recognized as the period between 1870 and 1914. This secondary movement created long lasting effects in many areas for America.