How the Big Bang Evolved into Life On Earth
Should we as humans expect to find intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe? There are many reasons for and against this concept, but first we should trace just how our terrestrial life started.
The beginning of time and the universe began with the Big Bang. This was an explosion that started the expansion of the universe. In the most basic sense, the standard model is simply the idea that every bit of the matter and energy in the universe was once compressed to an unimaginable density. In the big bang, the material exploded outward into the formation of matter that we see today. Shortly after this event everything in the universe was very dense and very hot. It was only until 500,000 years later that it cooled enough so that hydrogen and helium could form by fusion processes. Even then, it took another two billion years of cooling for enough clumps of interstellar dust and gas, called molecular clouds, to achieve stability in the universe.
From these molecular clouds, stars were able to form due to compression of the material by gravitational forces. In the core of a star fusion takes place that causes it to emit light. If the star is initially large enough, its death happens in the form of a supernova explosion. During this explosion, in less than one second, every element up to and including uranium is synthesized by fusion and dispersed into space. As time passed in the universe, the heavy element content as a whole increased, so new stars were more enriched.
Production of planets is an entirely different process. Planets form from the accretion disk surrounding newly formed stars. This material, comprised of dust and rock, collides and sticks together eventually gaining ...
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...ls. Or, we presently may have the technology, but since humans have only had the ability to send detectible waves (like radio) outward from the planet for the last 100 years or so, and taking into account the great distances these waves have to travel, it is quite possible that nothing intelligent has heard us yet. In my opinion, if indeed we are alone in this universe, wouldn't it just be a terrible waste of space?
2. Ward, Peter D. and Brownlee, Donald. Rare Earth -- Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. Copernicus, 2000
3. Kuhn, Karl F. In Quest of the Universe. 2nd Edition. West Publishing Company. 1994
5. Hawking, Stephen. The Big Bang and Black Holes. Vol. 8. World Scientific Publishing Co. 1993
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With the passage of time, the universe rapidly expanded, cooled and thus became less dense than it was at the beginning of the universe. That allowed the formation of the very first atoms, hydrogen and helium. The slight nonuniformity in the density of the universe led to gravity attracting matter and then leading to the formation of dense lumps of matter which grew rapidly as time progressed by attracting even more matter inwards. This process continued until the hydrogen in the huge lumps started to fuse together and release enormous energy which blew all the matter in the nearby surrounding space of what could then be called one of the first “stars”. All the stars in the universe started as a huge lump of hydrogen formed by gravity in a nebula - an area of high abundance of interstellar matter and dust. Through nuclear fusion of hydrogen, heavier elements like helium, lithium, beryllium, etc. until iron, formed in the core of the stars. All the other elements are believed to have originated in violent explosions called
Our solar system, as we see it today, originally formed from the collapse of a very cold and low-density cloud of gas. The mass of this cloud was composed of 98% hydrogen and helium, 1.4% hydrogen compounds, .4% rock, and .2% metal. The nebula was thought to be a few light years across and was roughly spherical in shape. The cloud was in a state of balance, it was neither contracting or expanding, until a cataclysmic event, most likely a supernova, created a shock wave through the nebula, resulting in an area of higher mass. Once this area became more massive than the rest of the nebula it begin to collapse with the area of hig...
There is a cultural assumption that there are many alien civilizations in the universe. However, what do we really know about extraterrestrial life? With recent findings of water on Mars and the discovery of Trappist-1, there could be hope for extraterrestrial life out in the universe. Even though the water on Mars is frozen under the polar ice caps and Trappist-1 could be far from finding any alien life, there are still many articles supporting the research and looking forward to finding additional news. In the article “Could the TRAPPSIT-1 worlds harbor alien life?’ written by Liz Fuller-Wright, she reports the announcement of astronomers that they found a miniature solar system of seven Earth-sized planets. Furthermore, the argument is effective towards bright individuals because it makes one think about what it will be if there was actually life outside of Earth.
Our Solar System was formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago during the Big Bang with the collapse of an interstellar body (Lammer et al., 2009). During these supernova explosions, the dusts and gases that were expelled were mixed and processed to form the planets of our system (Lammer et al., 2009, Nisbet and Sleep, 2001).
Solar nebula is a rotating flattened disk of gas and dust in which the outer part of the disk became planets while the center bulge part became the sun. Its inner part is hot, which is heated by a young sun and due to the impact of the gas falling on the disk during its collapse. However, the outer part is cold and far below the freezing point of water. In the solar nebula, the process of condensation occurs after enough cooling of solar nebula and results in the formation into a disk. Condensation is a process of cooling the gas and its molecules stick together to form liquid or solid particles. Therefore, condensation is the change from gas to liquid. In this process, the gas must cool below a critical temperature. Accretion is the process in which the tiny condensed particles from the nebula begin to stick together to form bigger pieces. Solar nebular theory explains the formation of the solar system. In the solar nebula, tiny grains stuck together and created bigger grains that grew into clumps, possibly held together by electrical forces similar to those that make lint stick to your clothes. Subsequent collisions, if not too violent, allowed these smaller particles to grow into objects ranging in size from millimeters to kilometers. These larger objects are called planetesimals. As planetesimals moved within the disk and collide with one another, planets formed. Because astronomers have no direct way to observe how the Solar System formed, they rely heavily on computer simulations to study that remote time. Computer simulations try to solve Newton’s laws of motion for the complex mix of dust and gas that we believe made up the solar nebula. Merging of the planetesimals increased their mass and thus their gravitational attraction. That, in turn, helped them grow even more massive by drawing planetesimals into clumps or rings around the sun. The process of planets building undergoes consumption of most of the planetesimals. Some survived planetesimals form small moons, asteroids, and comets. The leftover Rocky planetesimals that remained between Jupiter and Mars were stirred by Jupiter’s gravitational force. Therefore, these Rocky planetesimals are unable to assemble into a planet. These planetesimals are known as asteroids. Formation of solar system is explained by solar nebular theory. A rotating flat disk with center bulge is the solar nebula. The outer part of the disk becomes planets and the center bulge becomes the sun.
Over a 1950 summer lunch at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the great physicist Enrico Fermi asked his colleagues an unexpected question – “Don’t you ever wonder where everybody is?” Laughter went around the table as everyone immediately knew that he was talking about extraterrestrial intelligence . If life arises fairly commonly, as Fermi believed, it follows that there should be advanced civilizations with the desire to visit and colonize Earth close enough to do so. However, there is no incontrovertible evidence of aliens on Earth, either now or in the past. This is called the Fermi Paradox. The lack of observational evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence is known as the ‘Great Silence.’
Then the universe kept decreasing in density and temperature, the energy of each particle began to decrease and transitions of the phases continued until the fundamental forces of physics and elementary particles changed into their regular form. Since particle energies would have dropped to values that can be obtained by particle physics experiments, this period is subject to less speculation (Wall). According to NASA, after inflation the growth of the universe continued, but at a slower rate. As space expanded, the universe cooled and matter formed. One second after the Big Bang, the universe was filled with neutrons, protons, electrons, anti-electrons, photons, and neutrons (Williams).
The existence of life – Aliens, beyond our planet has been a controversial topic for several centuries, and is a debatable issue even today in the 21st century. What is our topic you may ask? Aliens, Do, Exist. According to theoretical physicist, Stephen Hawking, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth. This is a bold claim, but there is evidence to support this statement. The evidence we seek is in the many Alien occurrences we have experienced throughout human history.
In an article in Scholastic, David Fisherman states, “Within seconds the fireball ejected matter/energy at velocities approaching the speed of light. At some later time—maybe seconds later, maybe years later—energy and matter began to split apart and become separate entities. All of the different elements in the universe today developed from what spewed out of this original explosion” (Fishman). The diagram above shows how vastly and rapidly the universe was created. During the inflation of the universe, it grew rapidly and doubled in size at least ninety times. While hot and dense, the universe expanded rapidly. Denise Chow wrote on space.com, “for the first 380,000 years after the Big Bang, the intense heat from the universe’s creation made it essentially too hot for light to shine. Atoms crashed together with enough force to break up into a dense, opaque plasma of protons, neutrons, and electrons that scattered light like fog” (Chow). After cooling, it allowed energy to be converted into particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons. Within minutes after the Big Bang, atomic nuclei formed, but it took thousands of years before electrically neural atoms were first formed. The majority of atoms that formed were hydrogen, helium, and traces of lithium. Gravity caused the hydrogen and helium has to form giant clouds that will become galaxies, the smaller clouds broke apart to form stars, which was when the universe came out of its dark ages. Planets were formed by the first stars dying and releasing heavy elements into
After discovering the approximate age of the universe to be roughly 14 billion years old I was fascinated. To even try to fathom the idea that everything within the Universe has probably existed for such a vast amount of time is almost incomprehensible. It makes one wonder what our own significance is in this world which makes up a small amount of the Universe. Why were we even put here? Honestly, the Earth would probably be a lot happier if we were never put here because all we have done to this planet is destroy nature and use all of the natural resources available to us. So why are we apart of this vast scale of the Universe? Will mankind eventually discover more of the Universe and find other planets that are inhabitable? Similar questions were asked and answered in an essay written by Alan Lightman.
The Big Bang Theory is one of the most important, and most discussed topics in cosmology today. As such, it encompasses several smaller components that attempt to explain what happened in the moments after creation, and how the universe we know today came from such a fiery, chaotic universe in the wake of the Big Bang. One major component of the Big Bang theory is nucleosynthesis. We know that several stellar phenomena (including stellar fusion and various types of super novae) are responsible for the formation of all heavy elements up through Plutonium, however, after the advent of the Big Bang theory, we needed a way to explain what types of matter were created to form the earliest stars.!
In conclusion, numerous examples have been provided to prove the fact that we are not alone and that extraterrestrial life exists in our Universe. The Roswell Incident, the Sumerians, and scientific knowledge have all attributed to this fact. Although we have not discovered definitive proof of extraterrestrial life, science has speculated that over the course of the next ten years, we will have made contact with alien life. We will no longer be alone on this earth, the real question however, is what do you believe?
To conclude, there are no solid facts on the existence of extra-terrestrials. Whether or not they exist will, until definite proof is brought forward, be a topic of major debate. Personally I believe that there is something out there-although what it is I wouldn't hazard a guess.