However, in 597 BCE, after failing to continue their payment of tribute, Babylonia besieged Jerusalem. Nebuchadrezzer II, king on Babylonia, installs a puppet king, Zedekiah, in order to keep the Judeans in line. Nevertheless, Zedekiah rebels also. In 586, Babylonia exiles the most of the rulers and people of Judah to Babylonia, leaving only the poorest, and decimates Jerusalem, including the temple. Since the people believed the “Zion Theology,” which said Jerusalem is God’s choice of Zion and the monarchy comes from David, exile left the Judeans completely lost.
Israel’s beginning as an established nation and Israel’s recuperation from seventy years of Babylonian captivity is covered in the Books of History. After the conquest of Joshua, God sent deliverers also known as judges to judge the hearts of the people of Israel and rule over them after Joshua’s death. The Philistines’ brutally attacked the nation; subsequently, these assaults were a result of the people’s covenant disobedience. The Ark of the Covenant had been lost to the Philistines, consequently meaning they had a total disconnection from God’s presence and the mosaic covenant . God showed the people grace and punished the Philistines thus the Ark was returned.
Nebuchadnezzar dispersed the Assyrians, pushed their Egyptian allies out of Syria, and was about to invade Egypt itself when he received news of his father's death. He returned to Babylon to take the throne. King Nebuchadnezzar is best remembered for his relations with the Jews and as the builder of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. the Jewish kingdom of Judah was positioned between two great powers: Egypt and Babylon. It was unable to remain either independent or neutral; if it joined one side, it would be attacked by the other.
By 70 A.D., A revolt against Roman rule was put down by the Emperor Titus. Shortly after, the Temple of Solomon was once again destroyed. This marks the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. From 118-138 A.D., during the Emperor Hadrian’s reign, Jews were allowed to return to Israel. However, after another Jewish revolt in 133 A.D., Jerusalem was completely destroyed and its occupants, the Jews, banished and/or sold into slavery.
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus joined forces to form a triple leadership called the First Triumvirate. The rulers of Rome’s states and colonies suspected that one man would soon emerge as the complete ruler. Antipater, ruler of Idumea, played one ruler against the other to seek favor. Crassus invaded Jerusalem and stole the temple treasure while war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Antipater sided with Pompey until Pompey was defeated, and then switched his loyalty to Caesar.
The story was told in two parts: the first part focuses on the Exodus from Egypt and the second part concerns about the establishment of the covenant (Lecture 14, March 17). The story begins thousands of years ago where the people of Israel were captivated in Egypt. Moses, the first prophet in Judaism, was commanded by God to free the Israelites from the land of the Pharaohs and lead them to their promised land. However, the Pharaoh rejected Moses’s demand to free the Israelites, as he wanted to continue his possessions over them. Because of the Pharaoh’s rejection towards Moses’s demands, God sent plague to Egypt, making the Pharaoh changed his mind and accepted the demands.
From there it came to a halt but when President Anwar Sadat launched an attack through the Sinai Mountain passes, it totaled in Egyptian loss without achieving a purpose. From this failed mission, it made the Israelis think that they had a chance of beating the Egyptians so they launched Operation Abiray-Lev, which was Israelis trying to cross the Suez Canal so that they could close in the Egyptians forces towards the east side to stop there supply line. Soon after, the Israelis had some problems of trying to establish a corridor to the canal because they undermined the strength of the Egyptian forces. By October 18 there were three Israeli armored divisions across the canal, one of the divisions moved forward toward the north to invade Ismailia, while the other two went towards the Suez City. First Day of Battle On October 18, the Israeli paratroopers started their journey northward towards the city of Ismailia.
Assyria lost its independence to a dynasty of Amorite. Then Hammurabi of Babylon took over and established himself ruler of Assyria. The collapse of Hammurabi's Old Babylonian dynasty gave Assyria only temporary relief. It soon fell under the control of the Mitanni, until that state was destroyed by the Hittites c.1350 BC. The Early Neo-Assyrian Period (c.1200-600 BC) After the collapse of Mittanni, Assyria regained its independence and was able to hold it thanks to the weakness of its neighbors.
He then made his way to Greece were Pompey had solidified his position. After a difficult start, he defeated Pompey on the battlefield. Pompey fled to Egypt to escape capture, but the local Egyptians killed him to show support for Caesar. However, this outraged Caesar and put Caesar’s plans into disarray. Caesar thus joined the raging civil war between Queen Cleopatra and the nobles who had killed Pompey.
These tensions centered on Antony abandoning Octavian’s sister for Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt and Antony’s lover. In 34 BCE Antony donated the territories of Armenia, Syria and Cyrenaica to the Egyptian empire in the “Donations of Alexandria”. This donation represented a large fraction of Rome’s Eastern territory and was all land Antony was charged with protecting. Shortly thereafter Octavian convinced the republic to declare war on Egypt and Mark Antony. Build up to the Battle The next few years saw minor conflicts between the two bodies, during which both commanders built their navies.