Case Study about Brian’s Reading Difficulties In the case study entitled, How Far Should We Go, a fifth grader named Brian currently attends Willow Brook Elementary and transferred from a different district two years ago. In the previous school district, Brian received his instructional needs with special education services in a self-contained classroom after his diagnosis of language learning delays. Yet, when enrolled at Willow Brook, the decision for Brian’s placement resolved a continuous progress classroom as the appropriate educational environment. However, the author recommends further testing to determine the applicable instructional setting to support Brian’s progress with his reading difficulties.
Brian’s Reading Difficulties
Although in fifth grade, Brian currently reads at a first grade level, with slow progress in his reading advancement. While Brian had read 22 books …show more content…
According to research, over the period of the 1984-2012, the Reading Recovery program resulted in over 77% of participants who completed the intervention met the grade-level expectations in reading and writing. In addition to Reading Recovery, Brian received adjusted spelling tests where the number of correct letters were credited rather than correct words. Although, the continuous progress classroom consists of third, fourth, and fifth graders, the Reading Recovery program is specifically for younger children; therefore, appears inappropriate given Brian’s grade. Since Brian demonstrates no conspicuous progress in his reading difficulties based on the instructional modifications administered, the author concludes the modifications as ineffective; therefore suggests further
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Research and studies that have been conducted for the Early Literacy Skills Builder by the Attainment Company (Browder, Gibbs, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, & Lee, in press) prove that this literacy program is effective in teaching students with moderate and severe disabilities. The teaching strategies used in this literacy program are based on scientifically based reading research. The purpose of this literature review is to familiarize myself and other educators with the effectiveness of this program.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has established procedures for the placement of students with disabilities within a school setting. Members of the child study team develop individualized education programs (IEP) ,which are designed place students in the least restrictive environment based on their needs (Jones & Hensley, 2012). Research conducted by Jones and Hensley (2012), indicates that students with disabilities in self-contained classrooms exhibit lower levels of self-determination than students in resource classrooms. The research study consisted of 51 middle and high school students and 12 special education teachers. Their objective was to examine the impact of classroom placement on student outcomes and relationships (Jones & Hensley, 2012). In this study, self-contained classrooms focused on life skills such as, cooking, jobs, interacting in the community, and so forth. Resource classrooms were considered "pull-out classes”, which maintained an academic core curriculum, but utilized a small group learning environment (Jones & Hensley, 2012). Students in the resource classrooms were well integrated into the general school population. Th...
Teacher Interview(s): according to Ms. Special Ed, a ten-year veteran of special education who started her career at age twenty-nine, proportionally, 35.4 percent of S.H.E. students have an Individualized Education Program, in conformity with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, herein IDEA. In Windham County, the average public school has 18.6 percent of its student population considered to be learning disabled; S.H.E. has a noticeably higher percentage of students with learning disabilities, compared not only with Windham County, but Connecticut overall, as the average public school in the state is populated by 26.4% of its elementary students with learning disabilities. Further, more males than females at S.H.E. have learning disabilities with a ratio of 10.1% of females to 25.3% of males in the special education program. For the this specific field experience study relating to Students X & Y, both six-year old males, S.H.E. “offers” seven special education teachers and 13 paraprofessional instructional assistants who “service” the special needs of exceptional students including speech services, behavior interventionists and dedicated special education
This is a reading intervention classroom of six 3rd grade students ages 9-10. This intervention group focuses on phonics, fluency, and comprehension. The students were placed in this group based on the results of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency assessment. Students in this class lack basic decoding skills.
...h retaining the low literacy achieving students because the majority of the students do achieve grade-level standard in 12-20 weeks. The cost of the placement in special education classes is significantly higher than the cost of the 20-week class. Even though not all 100% of the students achieve the desired results, early intervention helps schools find future support services and lower the cost of the individual tutoring. Finally, the Federal IDEA funding requires the children to receive an early intervening service in order to reduce unnecessary testing cost.
Instruction. These two strategies are approaches that address classroom diversity in general education settings, and inclusion classroom settings. The idea of UDL is that instructional lessons, strategies, and assessments are planned with supports, which are more likely to be well-suited for students with special needs. The supports minimize the need for adaptations at a later time. Properly designed classrooms require fewer adaptations for students with special needs, is an ass...
Students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom may have challenges that require special attention. If the teacher is able to identify the disabilities and the features associated with them then the teacher can tailor the lessons to meet the needs of the students. These may include differentiated instruction and facilitating an inclusive classroom which will see inclusive strategies employed that will cater to the needs of students with learning disabilities. These inclusive strategies can range from individualized learning programs to team and co-teaching. In some cases, the teacher can arrange for a special education teacher or arrange for a pull out program to assist students who have learning disabilities. Strategies that will also cater to learning disabilities may also include the use of technology. According to Ford 2013 ‘In some situations it may be best for students with LD to be taught in separate pull out classrooms with a teacher who can provide targeted skill instruction in areas where a student is struggling.’ ‘When provided appropriate support within this setting, many of these students can achieve academically and develop positive self-esteem and social skills. (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 1991). They also recommend that schools should ‘require in-service programs for all school personnel to give them the knowledge and skills necessary to provide education for students with learning disabilities in the regular education classroom.’ Schools should include activities to help participants learn strategies to meet individual needs of students, foster attitudes conductive to educating students with learning disabilities in the regular education classroom, and promote
With such high numbers of adolescents falling below basic in reading, illiteracy is a battle that must be fought head on. The largest dilemma with the struggle is the number of variations that cause adolescents to become reluctant, unmotivated or struggling readers. Fortunately, a large number of strategies exist to encourage and strengthen readers of all ages, proving that adolescence is not a time to give up on faltering students. Rather, it is a time to evaluate and intervene in an effort to turn a reluctant reader into an avid one (or near enough). Ultimately, educators must learn to properly assess a student’s strengths and weaknesses (Curtis, 2009) and pair them with the proper intervention techniques. If one method does not work, countless others exist to take its place.
What do we do with children with disabilities in the public school? Do we include them in the general education class with the “regular” learning population or do we separate them to learn in a special environment more suited to their needs? The problem is many people have argued what is most effective, full inclusion where students with all ranges of disabilities are included in regular education classes for the entire day, or partial inclusion where children spend part of their day in a regular education setting and the rest of the day in a special education or resource class for the opportunity to work in a smaller group setting on specific needs. The need for care for children with identified disabilities both physical and learning continues to grow and the controversy continues.
The causes of reading difficulties often arise because of learning disabilities such as dyslexia, poor preparation before entering school, no value for literacy, low school attendance, insufficient reading instruction, and/or even the way students were taught to read in the early grades. The struggles that students “encounter in school can be seen as socially constructed-by the ways in which schools are organized and scheduled, by assumptions that are made about home life and school abilities, by a curriculum that is often devoid of connections to students’ lives, and by text that may be too difficult for students to read” (Hinchman, and Sheridan-Thomas166). Whatever the reason for the existence of the reading problem initially, by “the time a [student] is in the intermediate grades, there is good evidence that he will show continued reading g...
Many of these students require intensive instruction to maintain the academic skills they have been taught and to improve their academic deficits. For many students with E/BD, achievement problems are particularly troublesome in the area of reading (Maughan, Pickles, Hagell, Rutter, & Yule, 1996). Unfortunately, there has been very little published research in the area of reading instruction with this population of students. In their review of reading interventions in the area of E/BD, Coleman and Vaughn (2000) identified only eight published studies that reported the results of reading interventions for students with E/BD. The majority of these studies were conducted with students younger than 12 years of age.
In today’s educational environment, all students expect to receive the same level of instruction from schools and all students must meet the same set of standards. Expectations for students with learning disabilities are the same as students without any learning difficulties. It is now unacceptable for schools or teachers to expect less from one segment of students because they have physical disabilities, learning disabilities, discipline problems, or come from poor backgrounds. Standardize testing has resulted in making every student count as much as their peers and the most positive impact has been seen with the lowest ability students. Schools have developed new approaches to reach these previously underserved students while maintaining passing scores for the whole student body. To ensure academic success, teachers employ a multi-strategy approach to develop students of differing abilities and backgrounds. Every student is different in what skills and experiences they bring to the classroom; their personality, background, and interests are as varied as the ways in which teachers can choose to instruct them. Differentiated instruction has been an effective method in which teachers can engage students of various backgrounds and achieve whole-class success. When using differentiated instruction, teachers develop lesson strategies for each student or groups of students that provide different avenues of learning but all avenues arrive at the same learning goal.
Special education is no longer restricted to schools that cater for specific disabilities. Increasingly mainstream classrooms must cater for a diverse range of abilities and be inclusive of children with disabilities, therefore providing special education (Heward as cited on Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010). In catering for all children within a class, teachers also need to provide intervention as necessary. Intervention according to Heward (as cited on Education.com, 2011) intends to reduce, eliminate and/or limit the hurdles faced by students with disabilities that may prevent them from maximising their learning and becoming productive members of society. This essay will discuss how teachers can provide all three kinds of intervention; preventive, remedial and compensatory on behalf of individual students who may require it (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010). Each type of intervention will be explored with examples to demonstrate the possible use of each one and the potential issues that may be associated with them.
My experience with school was very challenging and overcoming my personal struggles was not an easy feat. I started Kindergarten with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and I’m thankful that my preschool teacher recognized my learning challenges and encouraged my parents to have me evaluated. We found out that I had ADHD and learning disabilities that would make academic achievement a challenge for me. More specifically, I had difficulty decoding words and pronouncing some letter sounds such as “R’s” and “W’s”. As a result, excelling in school was a challenge due to my disability and the reaction of other students to my disability only made it more difficult.