Many people know of the police officers of today’s world and that it is their job to enforce the laws set by their government, but not many people know the history of your typical everyday United States police officer or how they came about. The idea for neither your everyday police officer nor his or her department they work for or how a police department operates, originated in the United States. Over the years though America has made changes and adapted its system over the years to make it more suitable for its countries beliefs and practices.
Police forces or Law enforcers have been used for centuries all around the world but America took particular interest in the English’s policing system. America’s policing ideas and process began based off the British model. Back in the early 1200’s when Britain first started its law enforcement program it was very unorganized and wasn’t by any means serving “justice” to its people. Trials to determine if someone was innocent or guilty were very rare, and when they did occur innocence and guilt wasn’t proven but assumed that the offender to just be guilty. This would in most cases cause the “offender” to become the victim by having public executions which normally involved torture and other inhumane practices to the victim. In the late 1200’s however British law practices started to change and become more organize and fair. A set of four rules that would become to be known as the Statue of Winchester that set the guide lines that would create a watch and ward system in English cities and towns that would codify earlier police systems and practices. Meanwhile, in the early eighteenth century in London, Henry Fielding dubbed a force of dedicated English police officers as the Bow Street Runn...
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...long way since adopting the English law enforcement practices as its own foundation all those years ago but that doesn’t mean the U.S. doesn’t have a long way to go to perfecting its own system of law enforcement.
• Schmalleger, F. (2013). Policing: History and Structure. Criminal Justice Today An Introduction Text For the 21st Century (12th ed., ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
• Bob Johnson's Toughbook Stuff. (n.d.). : How Police Technology Has Changed.... Retrieved , from http://www.panasoniclaptops.com/2012/01/how-police-technology-has-changed.html
• UN Declaration of Human Rights, Innocent Until Proven Guilty, Videos : United for Human Rights (UN Declaration of Human Rights, Innocent Until Proven Guilty, Videos : United for Human Rights) http://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/videos/innocent-till-proven-guilty.html
For over a century police departments in the United States and across the world have been following Sir Robert Peel's twelve principals of policing. Almost nothing or very little has changed since these principals were first implemented in England's "Scotland Yard". Many of these principals are behind today's investigating and policing practices.
This textbook shared valuable information regarding the history of the criminal justice system, and more specifically the history of the police in America and England. It was most valuable for its discussion about Sir Robert Peel and his reforms to policing.
The English Police experience influenced American policing through their practice of keeping city streets clean as well as establishing the good order and discipline of its residents. One the main ways they were able to accomplish this was through deterrence which is still used to this day. The mere presence of a police officer or officers would deter residents from getting out of line and prevent them from doing "unseemly behavior" in public places. The establishment of the police meant an active group patrolling the streets on the lookout for breaches of the moral code as well as common-law crimes, thus extending the authority of the state into the daily lives of the
Since English colonizers were the first to establish an extravagant, European society in North America, it is unsurprising that many of the aspects of the American administration of justice stemmed from its mother country. In England, law enforcement was an unorganized mess until the year 1200 (Schmalleger 137). The police system remained static from 1285 to 1829, until when Sir Robert Peel instituted the modern police force (Schmalleger 139). However, early American law enforcement was bound to be different, due to the differences of American and English life and environment. In the beginning of the colonial law enforcement, towns and cities inaugurated versions of the English day ward and night watch, but these processes did not remain in place for long (Schmalleger 139).
American policing originated from early English law and is profoundly influenced by its history. Early law enforcement in England took on two forms of policing, one of which heavily influenced modern policing and it is known as the watch (Potter, 2013). The watch consisted, at first, of volunteers which had to patrol the streets for any kind of disorder including crime and fire. After men attempted to get out of volunteering by paying others, it became a paid professional position (Walker & Katz, 2012). The three eras of policing in America are shaped by these early ideas and practices of law enforcement. Throughout time, sufficient improvements and advancements have been made from the political era to the professional era and finally the community era which attempts to eliminate corruption, hire qualified officers and create an overall effective law enforcement system.
The Political Era of policing occurred in the early 1800’s and lasted until the 1930’s, and was under the direct influence of the local government and politicians. There were benefits of political influence; police departments began to develop intimate relationships within their communities offering a wide array of services to citizens. For example, the police worked soup kitchens and provided temporary housing for immigrants searching for work (Peak, 2015). In addition to providing an array of services to the community, officers were integrated into neighborhoods, which helped to prevent and contain riots. Typically, officers were assigned to neighborhoods where they lived or had the same ethnic background. Police departments
American law enforcement agencies are based off the English models which began in the early 1800’s. In 1829, the English Parliament passed the Metropolitan Police Act (Walker, 1983). Sir Robert Peel who has been credited as the father of modern policing introduced this act to Parliament (Walker, 1983). This act established the London Metropolitan Police which was the model for American policing. This method of policing incorpor...
Bibliography Why Good Cops Go Bad. Newsweek, p.18. Carter, David L. (1986). Deviance & Police. Ohio: Anderson Publishing Co. Castaneda, Ruben (1993, Jan. 18). Bearing the Badge of Mistrust. The Washington Post, p.11. Dantzer, Mark L. (1995). Understanding Today's Police. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. James, George (1993, Mar. 29). Confessions of Corruption. The New York Times, P.8, James, George (1993, Nov. 17). Officials Say Police Corruption is Hard To Stop. The New York times, p.3. Sherman, Lawrence W(1978). Commission Findings. New York Post, P. 28 Walker, J.T. (1992). The police in America, p.243-263, chp. 10, Walker, Samuel (1999).
Current economic and political trends will affect how, and if, certain reforms take place. Some trends like the increased costs for medical services will affect officer’s salaries and benefits, while the growth of inexpensive technology with instant communication through cell phones and personal computers will improve response time and distribution of information quickly and effectively. Changes population demographics, with the increase in the cultural and ethic diversity of the population will create more of need for career equality. This will also be pushed forward by the immigration of more highly educated professionals from third world countries. Increased multinational organized crime activity will create a bigger need for better communication between countries and joint efforts to stop it. Increased concerns with crimes committed by violent juveniles and individuals with modern weapons, terrorism and threats against our infrastructure will also shape the way policing reforms to solve these increased threats. Because of greater concern with terrorism, more resources will be allocated to homeland security. These are resources that could have helped domestic crimes and police management and will have to compensate for. Even smart credit cards, DNA identification and global positioning systems will all help shape the new policing model.
Police agencies have beautiful roles and functions in accomplishing law enforcement for protection and maintenance of peaceful, orderly, and safe society. Police officers are meant to be authoritative figures that can make the people feel safe and protected. The history of policing and establishment of polices departments in America reflect roles of police officers in fulfilling the defined and perceived the public need for law enforcement bodies that will look after keeping the peace and order in the communities. However, the temptations of time and circumstances have been always around and allowed permeation of corruption in police officers.