Reading, writing, math, science, and other skills learned in school are instrumental for a child to have in order to be successful both in higher education and in life. Many factors contribute to a student’s acquisition of these skills such as their learning environment, preschool education, mental and emotional development, parental involvement, and dedication to learning. The issue that many young children are facing, however, is that all of these factors can be greatly influenced by the Socioeconomic Status (SES) of their family. Unfortunately, up until recently it was virtually unknown how teachers could help these “at risk” children, which caused an increase in the likelihood of children dropping out of school or repeating a grade. However, it is now becoming clear that there are ways that educators can help ensure children have successful academic careers and lead better lives. Support from parents has proven to be of extreme importance in the literacy success of a child. This often begins with the simple ritual of “bedtime stories” in the home. Studies show that children who are read to as infants perform better in literacy later in life. From a young age, children begin to understand the workings of the written word if they are exposed to it frequently. Babies who are nowhere near having the mental capacity to read and comprehend a book are still able to “follow along” when their parents or caregivers read to them. These children understand that each segment of writing represents a word and they are even able to recognize when a text is upside-down because they are accustomed to the appearance of writing. This puts the child significantly ahead when the time comes to learn to read. Unfortunately for many children who com... ... middle of paper ... ...nomic Backgrounds. Deakin, Australia: Deakin University. Howard, T., Dresser, S., & Dunklee, D. (2009). Poverty is not a Learning Disability. Poverty Is NOT a Learning Disability:Equalizing Opportunities for Low SES Students (p. 20). Thousand Oaks: Corwin. Lee, V. E., & Burkam, D. T. (2002). Inequality at the starting gate: social background differences in achievement as children begin school. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. New, R. S., & Cochran, M. (2007). Socioeconomic Status. Early childhood education: an international encyclopedia (p. 749). Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. Rose, M. (1989). Lives on the boundary: the struggles and achievements of America's underprepared. New York: Free Press. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: Free Press.
In her article “When Class Became More Important to a Child’s Education Than Race,” Sarah Garland (2013) argues that money income is more important to a child's education than race. In this article Sarah states that children who have parents with low incomes do not get the same opportunity as children with parents who have higher income.
Besides race, the scholar also reveals how childhoods are unequal based on social class. Drawing from the American society, there are several social classes. For each class, there are unique pathways of lives followed and these usually influence both the educational and work outcomes. To ...
Allhusen, V., Belsky, J., Booth-LaForce, C., Bradley, R., Brownell, C. A., Burchinal, M., & ... Weinraub, M. (2005). Duration and Developmental Timing of Poverty and Children's Cognitive and Social Development from Birth Through Third Grade. Child Development, 76(4), 795-810. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00878.x
School funding is systemically unequal, partially because the majority of school funding comes from the school district’s local property taxes, positioning the poorest communities at the bottom rung of the education playing field. A student’s socioeconomic status often defines her success in a classroom for a number of reasons. Students who live below the poverty line have less motivation to succeed, and their parents are less inclined to participate in their child’s education, often because the parents cannot provide support for their children. Although it’s logical that school districts from poorer communities cannot collect as much funding as the richer communities, persons stuck in these low-income communities often pay higher taxes, and still their school dis...
The US Census Bureau sets an income threshold (Enwefa, Enwefa, & Jennings, 2006), if the income a family or individual brings in does not meet that threshold that individual or family is seen as being in poverty (Engle & Black, 2008). As many people know living below that threshold and being in poverty comes with many added struggles besides the obvious struggle, lack of income. Along with poverty comes chronic stress for the family as well as children (Engle & Black, 2008), health risks, health care that is seen as being inadequate (Enwefa, Enwefa, & Jennings, 2006). This paper will look at how poverty affects children and his or her functioning in school. As well as a look at other possible factors, such as the educational system, that could contribute to an influx of students being served through special education.
For years, people have been trying to figure out ways to equalize the divergent academic achievement rates between rich and poor children. A study published by the Kaiser Family Foundation in 2010 found that, since the late 90’s when they first started monitoring over 2,000 children, media
Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements of Americas Underpreparred. New York: Free Press, 1989.
Reading instruction in the elementary school is critical to students’ success in school. Students leaving elementary school, not reading at grade level, have a much lower chance of graduating from high school. “A student who can't read on grade level by 3rd grade is four times less likely to graduate by age 19 than a child who does read proficiently by that time. Add poverty to the mix, and a student is 13 times less likely to graduate on time than his or her proficient, wealthier peer” (Hernandez, 2011).
Socioeconomic status can be defined as “social standing of an individual or group combined with education, income and occupation” (Hedges et al., 1994). Socioeconomic status has a very strong relation to child cognitive skills. Examinations of socioeconomic status over many years show many inequalities between classes in access to resources and privilege, especially when discussing the cognitive development of children. Students of a lower socioeconomic status often face additional challenges compared to their higher socioeconomic counterparts including a less learning resources, difficult learning conditions and poor motivation that negatively affect their academic performance. (Ready, 2010) Disadvantaged children tend to start school with lower cognitive skills than more advantaged children. It has been said that depending on his or her socioeconomic status a child can have either a significant advantage or disadvantage right from the starting gate. (Ready, 2010) Research reports that differences in young children’s achievement scores in literacy and mathematics can be see at any age. (Hedges et al., 1994) Although other variables like prenatal care, parenting skills, and biological factors like genetics and illness are important to address when discussing cognitive development, socioeconomic is more visible in cognitive scores of children than any other factor by far. It will be argued that a variable that can effect the cognitive development of a child is their socioeconomic status.
It has been shown time and time again that a child’s family and background plays a substantial role in the future of a child. There have been a plethora of studies regarding the idea that students with a higher cultural capital, such as middle-class children, receive more assistance from teachers or rather just simply do better in their classes. It has been demonstrated that many of these middle-class students were instilled with this sense of entitlement and with that they have no fears of being looked down upon because they have been encouraged to speak out.
The authors describe the differences between relative and absolute poverty and how poverty correlates with education. When thinking of education and poverty, educators need to consider that not all students will have access to the technology that you would like them to. While this is true, poverty can be more than economical. It also includes, poor nutrition and health, poor home conditions, unstable home life, and prejudices. A lack of education can lead to this poverty, and a student’s parents’ views on education can affect how their child values theirs. Poverty can also lead gifted students to not reach their full potential, for impoverished students do not always have the same opportunities as their peers. Less poverty, often times,
Throughout the nation, education inequality affects many minority students that have low-income which reinforces the disparity between the rich and the poor. The amount of children that have a socioeconomic background of poverty in the United States is estimated to be 32.4 million (National Center for Children in Poverty, 2011). Since many of these children are from
It can be argued that the academic performance of children has nothing to do with their socioeconomic status, because there have been many cases of children from very poor families who have excelled greatly in academics (APA, 2017). Furthermore, many predominantly high-end schools have posted poor results when compared to school with poorer backgrounds. This is despite the fact children from lower socioeconomic classes do not have access to the best forms of learning materials. The high performance of children from poor backgrounds is often attributed to the fact that they are not preoccupied with many activities which would otherwise hinder them from concentrating on their studies (Sacerdote, 2002). Therefore, some believe it is false to say that poor performance is associated with children who come from low socioeconomic classes. Rather, they believe academic achievement is genetic (Sacerdote, 2002).
Living in poverty exposes children to disadvantages that influence many aspects in their life that are linked to their ability to do well in school. In the United States of America there are an estimated 16.4 million children under the age of 18 living in poverty (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). “The longer a child lives in poverty, the lower the educational attainment” (Kerbo, 2012). Children who are raised in low-income households are at risk of failing out before graduating high school (Black & Engle, 2008). U.S. children living in poverty face obstacles that interfere with their educational achievement. Recognizing the problems of living in poverty can help people reduce the consequences that prevent children from reaching their educational potential.