Social determinants of health have attracted the attention of governments, policy makers and international health organisations over the last three decades (Hankivsky & Christoffersen 2008). This is because social conditions which people are born in, live and work play an important role in their health outcomes (WHO 2015). According to Kibesh (1200) social determinants drive health disparities, disrupts the human developmental process and undermine the quality of life and opportunities for people and families (ref). Thus, several theories have been developed over the years to provide in-depth understanding of the social determinants of health and to reduce health inequalities (Hankivsky & Christoffersen, 2008). However, there is still significant
However, Canada is working towards incremental equality when regarding this concept, which in turn, impacts reconciliation. The most universal outcomes of the physical environments of reserves are to do with substantial housing shortages and poor quality of existing homes. With the lack of affordable housing off reserves, there is overcrowding in First Nation communities, as well as homelessness for Aboriginals living in urban areas, (Reading & Wien, 2009, p.8). Homes that exist on reserves lack appropriate ventilation, which results in mold, which in turn can lead to severe asthma as well as allergies. Families on reserves do not have access to a fresh supermarket that carries nutritious foods because they live in a remote community. With this being said, health conditions may develop in Aboriginal peoples because of the lack of healthy, nutritious food. Canada is working towards equality within the physical environments as William F. Morneau (2016) describes, “Budget 2016 proposes to invest $8.4 billion over five years, beginning in 2016-17, to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indigenous peoples and their communities and bring about transformational change,” (“A Better Future for Indigenous Peoples,” 2016). All of these aspects play a key role in reaching reconciliation throughout
Presently, access to programs and health care services is fragmented given the nature of the health care system for Aboriginal peoples (Wilson et al., 2012). The federal government is responsible for providing limited health services among Inuit living within traditional territories and status/registered Indians living on reserves (Chen et al., 2004). This responsibility is vested in the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch organizations to carry out protection activities and health promotion, and provide funding for community health programs in Inuit communities and reserves (Chen et al., 2004). Firstly, the complexity of the health care system for Aboriginal peoples has resulted in an unequal access to health services due to the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch program (FNIHB), which only applies to Inuit and Indians. Therefore, Metis and other Aboriginal peoples who do not qualify for registration under the Indian Act do not receive health services provided by FNIHB (Chen et al., 2004). Secondly, the transfer of responsibility to health boards, communities and other authorities has resulted in unequal supply of health services between territories and provinces, uneven distribution among communities, and leaves limited opportunity for increased funding (Loppie et al., 2009). It has also lead to controversy between various levels of government over the responsibility to pay for particular health services. Jurisdictional limitations, which have failed to recognize Metis identity and rights, have resulted in health disparities among the Metis population (Wilson et al., 2012). While the federal government recently decided to include Metis status in Aboriginal initiatives, the funding has not been equitable when compared to those of Inuit and First Nations or to the non-Aboriginal populations in Canada (Loppie et al., 2009). The Aboriginal health
Nurses playing an important role in communication with the patient. ”communication is a life long learning process for nurse.’’(P & P). Nurses are working with patients and their families from their birth to death. It is mandatory to the nurse to maintain or create a therapeutic relationship, communication throughout their caring process. For effective communication the nurse should understand their cultural belief, and values, etc. One person’s personal beliefs, traditions and values can influence their recognition of their health and wellness. Based on that they will choose their medical care and treatment. (Nadline Caron). Aboriginal people are the original inhabitants of the Canadian land. Aboriginal peoples are living with their
The social determinants of health in this video is Aboriginal Status, due to Colonization, relocation of families and residential schools has led to the adverse health outcomes for many Canadian Aboriginal people, overcrowding in homes ,food insecurity, and low income has caused increased rate of chronic illness and reduced life expectancy (Kozier ,2014) The broader social or political issue in Northern Manitoba Reserves is that the Government is not providing enough funding to develop these reserves. Once Aboriginal people were allowed off reserves, some of them relocated to larger cities for greener pastures. Instead of employment opportunities or even relief in the form of charity, many Aboriginal people were faced with racist attitudes that had already been long entrenched in Canadian society (Center for central justice 2016).Aboriginal people face a lot of racism in other communities and some people have stereotyped them as alcoholics who do not like to work. In addition, In many Aboriginal communities,basic commodities like fruit, vegetables, and milk must be transported long distances because of bad roads and this results in high costs of food and poor food
There are significant health disparities that exist between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians. Being an Indigenous Australian means the person is and identifies as an Indigenous Australian, acknowledges their Indigenous heritage and is accepted as such in the community they live in (Daly, Speedy, & Jackson, 2010). Compared with Non-Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal people die at much younger ages, have more disability and experience a reduced quality of life because of ill health. This difference in health status is why Indigenous Australians health is often described as “Third World health in a First World nation” (Carson, Dunbar, Chenhall, & Bailie, 2007, p.xxi). Aboriginal health care in the present and future should encompass a holistic approach which includes social, emotional, spiritual and cultural wellbeing in order to be culturally suitable to improve Indigenous Health. There are three dimensions of health- physical, social and mental- that all interrelate to determine an individual’s overall health. If one of these dimensions is compromised, it affects how the other two dimensions function, and overall affects an individual’s health status. The social determinants of health are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age which includes education, economics, social gradient, stress, early life, social inclusion, employment, transport, food, and social supports (Gruis, 2014). The social determinants that are specifically negatively impacting on Indigenous Australians health include poverty, social class, racism, education, employment, country/land and housing (Isaacs, 2014). If these social determinants inequalities are remedied, Indigenous Australians will have the same opportunities as Non-Ind...
Social determinants of health has been a large topic for many years and can have a positive and negative effect on individuals, families and communities. (World Health Organisation, 2009) The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Social determinants have many factors and in this essay education will be the main social determinant of health discussed and how this could have an impact on the physical and mental sides of health.
Over the years, the social determinants of health (SDOH) have been receiving more attention due to its importance in determining peoples’ health access, health quality and health outcome. The social determinants of health have been described by various scholars as the situation or environmental condition in which people are born, or where they grow, live and work; unfortunately these conditions have continued to affect and determine people’s ability to access proper care.1-5 In other words, the SDOH continues to consciously and unconsciously influence people’s access to most opportunities in life including access to healthcare services both in developed and developing countries.2 This issues have continue to deteriorate in most developing countries increasing people’s susceptibility to multi-morbidity among different age groups, with a slight increase among the elderly.6
The health of an individual and their communities is affected by several elements which combine together. Whether an individual is healthy or not, is determined by their circumstances and environment.1 To a greater extent, factors such as where an individual lives, their relationships with family and friends, the state of their environment, income, genetics and level of education all have significant impacts on health, however the more frequently considered factors such as access and use of health care facilities regularly have less of an impact.6 Determinants of health is a term which was introduced in the 1970s as part of a broader analysis of research and policy on public health. Researchers argued that there was a lot of attention and too much expenditure on health being dedicated to individuals and their illnesses, and little or no investment in populations and their health. It was decided that public health should be more concerned with social policies and social determinants than with health facilities and the outcomes of diseases.7 The determinants of health include social and economic environment, physical environment and an individual’s behaviour and characteristics. The environment of an individual determines their health, holding responsible an individual for having poor health or acknowledging them for good health is inappropriate. Individuals are not likely to be able to control several of the determinants of health. These determinants that make individuals healthy or not include the factors above, and numerous others.6