The social disadvantage and poor health of Indigenous Australians is well documented. The barriers to the well-being of Indigenous Australians have deep-seated associations to historical factors and social disadvantage. Health is a reflection of the socio-economic conditions of an individual and their community known as the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) (Marmot, 2010, p. 3). The SDoH are acknowledged as perpetuating social disadvantage and are directly linked to the health inequalities experienced by Indigenous Australians (Baum, Bentley & Anderson, 2004, p.23; Reilly et al., 2011). The invasion by the British in 1788 marked the beginnings of more than 200 years of Indigenous Australian's struggles with a history of oppression, trauma, brutality, dispossession, displacement, marginalisation poverty and poor health.
The social determinants that are specifically negatively impacting on Indigenous Australians health include poverty, social class, racism, education, employment, country/land and housing (Isaacs, 2014). If these social determinants inequalities are remedied, Indigenous Australians will have the same opportunities as Non-Ind... ... middle of paper ... ...ther two dimensions productivity. Social determinants are situations in which people are born, grow, live, work and age which is why they are so influential on the contemporary and future health status of the individual. Aboriginal people die at much younger ages, have more disability and experience a reduced quality of life because of ill health, which in some way can be related back to the social determinants of health. Many of these social determinants have programs implemented to try and rectified the disparities in health status between Indigenous Australians and Non-Indigenous Australians.
Through showing the different definitions of health, the authors explain how those different understandings affect patterns of behavior on health depend on different cultures. In addition, an analysis of the models of health demonstrates even western medical approaches to health have different cognitions, same as the Indigenous health beliefs. The most remarkable aspect is a balance, a corresponding core element in most cultures which is an important consideration in Indigenous health as well. From an Indigenous perspective, health is considered as being linked, and keeping the connection is a priority to preserve their health. Consequently, health is a very much culturally determined.
By researching literature, it has been found that poverty is a large issue affecting many Indigenous Australians lives. These examples of issues causing Indigenous poverty have found, that the loss of land faced by Indigenous Australians both historically and now is resulting in Aboriginal poverty, the pollution on the environment causes Indigenous poverty by affecting their health and isolating them and the exclusions of social provisions that Indigenous Australians face do not allow for a healthy wellbeing, evidently resulting in poverty. Overall, to address the issues one must be culturally appropriate. A research approach can also be effective in addressing the issue. Therefore, the issues must be addressed so Indigenous Australians can have fairness amongst all areas of life.
However, racism arises when external gestures are made from individuals who show superiority and preference for their own cultural background, due to biological descent. Racism is a problem faced by many ethnic minority groups, resulting in inequalities that lead towards negative health outcomes. Previous research on the health of Aboriginal Australians and the New Zealand Maori have shown that racist discrimination and self-reports of racism are detrimental towards the health of minority individuals. Nazroo (2003) suggested that racism caused social and economic disparities among the health of ethnic people. Racism, viewed from a structuralist explanation, sees poor health situated outside individual control, placing greater stress on social and cultural factors (Julian, 2009).
Rather, Buchanan proposed the field of public health to gain the public’s trust, needs to expand individual autonomy by promoting social justice while discussing the common portrayals of justice. The rationale behind Buchanan’s work is to bring understanding to an ethical issue of paternalism v. autonomy in public health. Paternalism can be justified given it protects the interest of the people and autonomy is an individual’s freedom from external control or influence. There are valid arguments for both sides, but in public health, paternalism is very useful situationally, while autonomy must be preserved and respected as it is an individual given right. Aiming for an ideal range where public health policy and individual freedom can overlap, no matter the inconsistencies, is the
Many public health experts believe that stigma, along with the high cost of treatment, the lack of infrastructure, and the la... ... middle of paper ... ...e infected gain access to treatment. There are many stigmas and stereotypes associated with individuals who are infected. Policies put in place by wealthy nations over the highly impacted developing nations directly affect how people access medication and social services. In addition, local policies and laws affect how individuals earn an income and how they can survive. In the case of sex workers in Canada, the police force the sex workers to more remote and isolated areas, increasing their risk of violence and lowering their ability to negotiate condom use.
However Indigenous culture in Australia has been deeply affected due to the colonisation, since they had suffered severe injustices. This essay will discuss some difficulties that Indigenous Australians had to face include issues of health, stolen generations and poverty. One of the most devastating effects that the European settlement caused in the indigenous Australians has an implication with health issues. When white people arrived in the new land, Aboriginal population suffered from new diseases, as a result there was a disruption in their habits and lifestyle (Tourism Australia 2014). As Nerelle (2012, p. 5) explains that the complexity of health for Indigenous Australians encloses not only the physical conditions, but also the social and spiritual conditions and after the arrival of Europeans this conception of health was relegated.
This essay will explore the significant and negative impact on the Indigenous communities and how policy decisions have impacted and continue to impact the Indigenous communities. This essay will also outline why there have been significant policy shifts over time, the current issues in delivering services to Indigenous Australian’s and why these issues have emerged. Indigenous communities suffer the worst health in Australia and are most at risk to many illness’s compared to other Australian’s. “The poor health experienced by Indigenous people reflects the disadvantage they experience, as many Indigenous communities do not have access to quality health care and to clean water.” (Reconciliaction Network, p.1) The specific health concerns for Indigenous Australian’s are the higher rate of diabetes, higher mortality rate with cancers, cardiovascular disease is more common, eye conditions, higher risk of smoking which contributes to other health impacts, ear disease w... ... middle of paper ... ...fficient training for health workers, communication barriers, a general mistrust in the health care system and culture shock has contributed to issues in delivering services to many Indigenous communities. The reason to why these issues have emerged is a result of two main factors, the lack of health services that are needed to address the issue and the silence of Indigenous communities which leads to misunderstanding between the government and Indigenous communities.
SRH2002 – Indigenous Health and Wellbeing Assessment Task 3 Topic 3: "Outline the social determinants of health in Australia and provide a critical analysis of these determinants. Discuss the current health status comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and interventions to remedy these inequalities.” Charmine A Hines 25171720 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have some of the worst health outcomes in comparison to any other indigenous community in the world (AIHW, 2011). According to United Nations official Anand Grover, Aboriginal health conditions are even worse than some Third World countries (Arup & Sharp, 2009), which is astonishing, considering Australia is one of the worlds wealthiest countries. Thoroughly identifying the causes and analysing every aspect behind poor health of indigenous Australians, and Australian health in general, is near impossible due to the complexity and abundant layers of this issue. Even within the category of social determinants, it is hard to distinguish just one factor, due to so many which interrelate and correspond with each other.