In 1985, over 10,000 cases of AIDS were reported worldwide (White and Fenner 1986). Just over a decade later, in 1998, the Global AIDS Policy Coalition estimated that 30.6 million people were infected with HIV worldwide. It has also been projected that by the year 2000, between 40 and 70 million adults will be infected with HIV (New Generation Vaccines 1997). Over 90% of all HIV-1 infected individuals live in developing nations: 50% in Southeast Asia and 40% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, even with all of these alarming statistics and projections, there is hope for the future of humanity.
REVIEW: HIV-1 and current research on antivirals, vaccines, and animal models Daniel Nelson Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents a major public health concern in developing and developed nations alike, with an estimated 35.3 million people worldwide living with HIV1.One-third of a century’s worth of research has helped change HIV from a steady and certain killer into a relatively manageable infection when treated with appropriate care. However, the HIV puzzle is far from solved. 2012 estimates suggest acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, caused by HIV) kills 1.6 million each year1. Reflecting the seriousness of the pandemic, the United States National Institutes of Health has made it a research priority, investing nearly three billion US dollars in HIV/AIDS research in 2013 alone—with similar amounts budgeted for future years2. Two major types of HIV exist: type 1 and type 2.
Cause and Effect Economic Decline on Mental Health. When we hear the word Recession we automatically think money, unemployment, but what about the reality of the mental status of our generation that lived through the recession of 2008? What mental issues stem from the main issues of unemployment, and poverty due to the recession? What where the rising cost for mental health services due to the recession? Finally what will our generation carrying into the future due to living through the down turn of the economy?
In addition, limited access to antiretroviral drugs in some of the most affected regions such as the Sub-Saharan Africa has slowed down the fight against the epidemic. AIDS is associated with other devastating diseases such as Kaposi Sarcoma and liver diseases which calls for more research efforts to find an effective vaccine. Apart from the increasing cases of HIV infection through sexual intercourse and drug injecting paraphernalia, mother-to-child transmission has also been cited as a major culprit (Majid, 2010). Despite a wide range of challenges facing the faculty of drug and vaccine development, considerable progress has been made. This paper presents the major challenges facing the area of viral disease research and specifically HIV/AIDS.
(Worldwide HIV & AIDS Statistics, 2009) Furthermore, more than three million peopl... ... middle of paper ... ... of the world would become affected. This financial crisis and economic recession affected Canada by GDP growth, employment growth, and productivity growth. The GDP growth and employment growth was diminishing and the productivity growth were decreased. (Economy Overview, 2009) The results of Canada’s economy being in a recession caused job losses and financial burdens on people within Canada. Thus, the issue of the economy should be focus on because of the recession.
They are no longer associated with poor countries only. Therefore, diseases are becoming one of the biggest concerns of the day across the world. After reading Philip Hilts “Why We Must Rise to the Global Health Challenge” I am even more persuaded that the global health challenge is the most pressing issue that the world needs to come together to combat. Hilts argues that, for the last 150 years, human beings have made impressive steps towards eradicating disease and alleviating the degree of suffering that is experienced by the people who are sick (Hilts). However, the gains have been reversed by their resurgence of the disease in both developing and developed countries.
With the allegation of collapse from large financial institutions, and the bailout of banks by the government, began the second great depression. Many believe that we are still stuck in this recession and have not completed anything to get out of this situation that’s affecting our nation. I believe that the economic crash in 2008 was the finale building block towards a more structural society, political system, and government in the United States of America. There are a vast amount of listed causes that lead to the 2008 economic collapse, but only a few really dealt the damage. The problems arrived over a period of time from 1995 to 2008.
Sub-Saharan Africa has just over 10% of the world’s population, but is home to more than 60% of all people living with HIV—some 25.4 million . Africa’s AIDS challenge is a multifaceted problem which requires a unique, flexible, and multipronged approach. Education, prevention, and treatment are a necessary start but the United States must look deeper in order to effectively and properly help the communities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Current US policy under President George W. Bush is a massive change to previous policy. It commits 15 billion dollars of aid over a five year period.
Ocaya (2012) state that the credit crisis is a financial market or economic meltdown of borrowing the funds to the borrower and cannot get back, it evaluated by severe shortage of money or credit bring accumulation of bad debts, defaults and falling financial institutions among others. However, the experts and economists are unclear as what form a credit crisis. The Wall Street defines a credit crisis as a “period during which borrowed funds are difficult to get and, even if funds can find, interest rates are very high”. Credit crisis mostly began in 2007. The effect of the credit crisis has brought fall down on the housing market in some country resulting in foreclosures and unemployment.
This also caused a decline in reserves in 2008. Malaysia’s high level of reserves had slow down during the periods of huge reversals in short term flows. Moreover, the financial crisis 2008 had impacted the foreign exchange rate. Capital flows had significant impacted on the Malaysian Ringgit since de-pegging from US dollar. Capital outflows depress the price of ringgit in the way of declining the demand in exports and portfolio capital outflows.