Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. Steve Windley, MD, whom structure is manipulated. Modifying these organisms could control what they react and don’t react to, such as resistance to herbicides or it could improve the nutritional content. The other effects may be growth, or a slew of a numerous effects that could go unnoticed for years The History of Genetically Modified Organism. Genetically Modified Organism was introduced to the public approximately fourteen years ago.
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The basis for genetic modification occurred in the 1970's when the technology to isolate individual genes and alter and copy them in cells was developed. In 1994, the first genetically modified crop, the Flavr Savr Tomato, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for sale and consumption 1. Since then the GMOs have taken over the agriculture industry with over 22 percent (or roughly 60-70% of commercially sold foods) of crops worldwide being GM crops. The basis of modern biotechnology began in 1953 when a biologist and a physicist by the names of Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA2 . Since then, scientists have discovered ways to manipulate DNA and even transfer the DNA from one organism to another.
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These plants are genetically modified to enhance or even introduce desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides and pests, improved nutritional content and adaptations to harsh or hostile environments. The enhancement of desired traits of crop plants is not something new. This had been done millennia ago through selective breeding and grafting, but this conventional process can be very time-consuming and are often ineffective or inaccurate. On the other hand, through genetic engineering, crop plants with desired traits can be cultivated qui... ... middle of paper ... ...ction of antibodies, biopharmaceuticals and edible vaccines in plants (2001, May) Trends in Plant Science, Pg. 219-226 4.