How Watson and Crick’s Discovery of the Structure of DNA Influenced American Industries and Scientific Development in the United States
Genetic engineering, sometimes called genetic modification, is the process to alter the structure and nature of genes in humans, plants, and animals (what is genetic engineering). Because DNA is a code that is universal, genes can be manipulated
Genetic engineering has been around for many years and is widely used all over the planet. Many people don’t realize that genetic engineering is part of their daily lives and diet. Today, almost 70 percent of processed foods from a grocery store were genetically engineered. Genetic engineering can be in plants, foods, animals, and even humans. Although debates about genetic engineering still exist, many people have accepted due to the health benefits of gene therapy. The lack of knowledge has always tricked people because they only focused on the negative perspective of genetic engineering and not the positive perspective. In this paper, I will be talking about how Genetic engineering is connected to Brave New World, how the history of genetic engineering impacts the world, how genetic engineering works, how people opinions are influenced, how the side effects can be devastating, how the genetic engineering can be beneficial for the society and also how the ethical issues affect people’s perspective.
What is genetic engineering? Any medical dictionary will loosely defines it as “the group of applied techniques of genetics and biotechnology used to cut up and join together genetic material and especially DNA from one or more species of organism and to introduce the result into an organism in order to change one or more of its characteristics” (“genetic engineering”). While most genetic research is for the purpose of medical advancement and the treatment of incurable genetic defects like Down’s syndrome, eugenics was once pursued under the guise of genetic engineering for the greater good. As defined a...
Genetic engineering is defined as “directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.” by the Unified Medical Language System at the National Library of Medicine. (“Genetic Engineering.”) Genetic engineering can be used to modify plants, animals, and humans. (Proquest Staff. “At Issue: Genetic Engineering.”) The Human Genome Project, a project devoted to researching genes and their functions, has opened many doors for genetic engineering. (Proquest Staff. “At Issue: Genetic Engineering.”) Scientists classify genetic engineering into two categories- “positive” genetic engineering, which includes any engineering of genes to enhance characteristics of human beings, and “negative” genetic engineering, which includes the engineering of genes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases. (Heos, Bridget) Genetic engineering consists of procedures that have the potential to help many people in many ways, but it is also considered unethical by many.
Genetic engineering is now being used to create new medicines and therapies for many disorders and diseases, and also to improve agricultural plants and animals to produce bigger yields or enhanced nutrient composition and food quality. In Gene therapy, copies of healthy human genes produced in bacteria can be inserted into human cells with defective or missing genes, to fix the problem. Gene therapy is promising because it can use to treat genetic
Although genetic engineering is currently expanding rapidly, this area of study has been around for a very long time. Humans, by instinct, are always striving to better themselves and to greater develop both computer and bio- technology. Even though scientists do not know how to program DNA yet, society has already seen glimpses of the results of modifying evolution and natural human development. ...
Genetic engineering has revolutionized over the years and it is being used to improve food, to discover new medicines, to remove environmental contaminants, to recycle waste, and to provide permanent cures for inherited diseases (Le Vine, 1999). The purpose of genetic engineering in the medical field has been to produce mass-produce insulin, human growth hormones, human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and many other drugs (Applications of Genetic Engineering,
Before scientists could begin to genetically engineer organisms they first needed to understand DNA. In the 1860’s Greggory Mendel was one of the first scientists to do research on genetics and DNA. He studied pea plants and the inheritance of certain traits past down from the parent plants to their offspring. In the 1950’s Francis Crick and James Watson helped make the discovery of DNA and later made a model of the double helix structure. From this point on it was widely accepted that a person’s heredity can be determined by the genes that are passed on from their parents (16).
Human society always attempts to better itself through the use of technology. Thus far, as a species, we have already achieved much: mastery of electronics, flight, and space travel. However, the field in which the most progress is currently being made is Biology, specifically Genetic Engineering. In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, humanity has taken control of reproduction and biology in the same way that we have mastered chemistry and physics. Efficiency drives the entire goal of society, leading to the creation of an assembly-line process.
In 1953, Dr. Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. This is the molecule which we now know stores the genetic information for all life. Many scientists have claimed the discovery to be the single most important development in biology during the 20th century. Watson and Crick's investigation into the nature of the genetic code and the passing of information from generation to generation has redefined the study of genetics. Also, it has basically created the science of molecular biology. For their outstanding work, James Watson and Dr. Francis Crick were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize.
Modern society is filled with ever-growing, ever-changing technology that, for the most part, is not harmful to its users. In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, Huxley demonstrates the impact scientific technology plays on the lives of Bernard and Lenina.
Lambrecht, Bill. Dinner at the new gene café: how genetic engineering is changing what we eat, how we live, and the global politics. New York : Thomas Dunne Books, 2001.
Genetically modifying human beings has the possibility of greatly reducing/completely eradicating disease and could allow for longer lifespans within the near future. However, there are many issues associated with genetic engineering including being misused for ulterior motives and ethical problems. While there is good that can come from genetic engineering, the many detriments associated with it far outweigh the few positive outcomes. In his novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley’s idea of genetic modification is far more extreme and unethical than any current real world technologies, but if the technology continues to rapidly grow, Huxley’s future may not be that far off from the truth.
Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, a wicked piece of literature tells the tale of a controlled, cruel futuristic society. Brave New World is not a pleasant book, it is spine-chilling. In this book, the government uses genetic engineering to produce the population. Using horrible methods, the society is stratified by genetically-predestined castes. Young members of all the castes are brainwashed to believe in lies. There are no emotional, relationships, literature, and religion, causing this book to be truly terrifying.