Marital dysfunction, as evidenced by parental separation and domestic violence, is associated with higher risks of child sexual abuse" (Mullen 4). Mullen goes on to state that "The possibility has been raised that characteristics such as physical attractiveness, temperament, or physical maturity might increase the risks of children being sexually abused" (4). Many researchers link behavioral problems in adulthood to childhood abuse. One researcher says that "An adult who was sexually abused as a child has a greater chance of becoming violent, suicidal, and abusive to their children than an adult who was not abused sexually as a child" (Kliest 155). These characteristics could hinder a victim from living a normal lifestyle and having a family.
Researchers that found an increase in externalizing behavior have hypothesized that children may model the parents' harsh behavior and therefore act out more after they have been spanked. They have also hypothesized that spanking may teach children that physical aggression is an appropriate way to make others comply with their wishes. Another hypothesis often addressed in this research is whether race and ethnic group may have a moderating effect on the relationship between corporal punishment and increased externalizing behavior. In an article that focused on the relationship of corporal punishment to children's externalizing behaviors, Lansford, Wager, Bates, Pettit, and Dodge (2012) reported on the results of their experiment on the frequency and severity of spankings and the effects of those punishments. Lansford et al.
This can heighten the incidence of addiction and the onset of psychological disorders (Casey, 2008). There are various theories that attempt to explain why adolescents engage in risky behaviour. One of these theories by Yurgelun-Todd stems from human adolescent brain development, and proposes that cognitive development during the adolescent period is associated with increasingly superior efficiency of cognitive control and affective modulation (Casey, 2008). This theory also suggest... ... middle of paper ... ...odel since some of the studies done may not be accurate. For example, with concern to the study Casey’s discussed concerning delay of gratification study, there was too much variability.
Looking at numbers leads to the statistics of gender differences. Boys and girls differ in some aspects of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but bother are affected. Along wi... ... middle of paper ... ...riedman, S. (2007). Clinically Significant Trauma Symptoms and Behavioral Problems in a Community-based Sample of Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 487-499. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9113-z Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P. G. (2003).
The children may lose respect and affection for their parents to resist their influences or the power of their suggestion.”(Bridges). Bridges book explains that children who are raised in an environment where they have delinquent parents are more likely to become a delinquent child. She also mentions that children that have delinquent parents grow up being rebellious to their parents commands which a sign of future delinquency. As a result, children who are raised in corrupted environments is a major risk factor for youth crime.
Social Factors of Childhood Aggression Researchers have found several social factors that attribute to childhood aggression. Some of these factors include mother infant relationships, neighborhood structure, family structure, and peer influences. If infants have an insecure attachment with their mothers, which is defined as the child’s overdependence on, or lack of interest in the caregiver, and a child’s lack of confidence, then they are more likely to have behavioral problems. In the case of boys, these problems are often of an aggressive nature. Many studies have found that a single parent often raises aggressive children.
Dysfunction within the family, negative peer pressure and substance abuse all influence the behavior and action of youth ages persons. All of these factors contribute to the possibility of a youth aged child to becoming a juvenile delinquent. Not all youths that have these different situations occurring in their childhood become involved in criminal activities, but they increase the chances. Children are affected at young ages and the things that they face in life and they way they act are vital in the path that they choose to follow in life. According to Krohn, Hall, & Lizotte (2009) changes in the structure of a family can be very disruptive in the positive development of adolescents who live within these families.
This punishment can affects the child’s thought processes, problem solving, and decision-making. According to “Corporal Punishment by Mothers and Development of Children’s Cognitive Ability: A Longitudinal Study of Two Nationally Representative Age Cohorts” by Murray A. Straus and Mallie J. Paschall, “ CP adversely affects the development of cognitive ability, ending use of CP could result in an increase in the national average level of cognitive ability.” A child undergoes cognitive development as they grow, and corporal punishment can impact this process. When a child is slapped or spanked, the child becomes afraid causing high levels of stress. When a child’s body undergoes significant levels of stress, it can result in cognitive deficits like erroneous, difficulties understand events, and this limits the child’s ability to overachieve in school. This is supported by an interview conducted in 1986 by Power and Chapieski; women’s children who mainly used corporal punishment were tested along with children that mothers did not believe in corporal punishment.
However, there are variations in maltreated children who later become juvenile delinquents. Recent studies show that a significant percentage of children who are abused do not necessarily become juvenile delinquents. This proves that there are other factors which contribute to delinquency among abused children. The essay seeks to identify the factors which are likely to result in greater delinquency among abused children. It applies researches on child psychology and juvenile justice system to identify and elaborate on these factors.
The biggest outcomes that come from divorced families would be psychosocial development of internal and external stress sources, and intimate and social relationships. Other factors that can come into play are closeness with parents, well-being, and reactions to life situations and choices that involve social influences. If the effects of divorce on an adolescent are extreme, then the feeling of being overlooked and ignored can develop. People of all different ages and occupations need to know and realize that these factors are very important; people also need to be knowledgeable on how to improve these outcomes and prevent horrible consequences in teens and people in general. Divorce effects on adolescents can become issues in their psychosocial development throughout their teen years and beyond.