we also see dark and mysterious mothers performing negative roles associated with the Earth Mother. This paper seeks to question the ideals of motherhood and maternity in Black American fiction with special reference to the central mother figure in Toni Morrison’s Beloved and to see if the roles of mother can be analyzed in altruistic terms alone or as something that is determined by the social conditions prevailing at a given moment. Considerable research has been done on the novels written by black women writers. Writers like Betty Overton (1970), Elwanda Ingram (1980), Karen Gaston (1981), deals with the theme of self discovery in the novels of African-American women writers. On the other hand, Sandra waters Holt (1989), Eunsook Koo (1993), and Claudia Tate (1995) has discussed issues of racial conflict, class and gender using feminist literary theories.
Spielberg’s Erroneous Adaptation The Color Purple is a Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winning 1982 feminist novel by Alice Walker that centers on relationships amongst black women in the 1920s and their ever-running battles with race issues and the patriarchy. Stephen Spielberg’s film adaptation of this book turns a modern black feminist novel into a people-pleasing blockbuster due in part to his discomfort with some of the key topics of gender and sexuality. The major changes due to Spielberg’s discomfort are circled around interactions amongst female characters and others, chiefly around the character Shug Avery and her relationships: spiritual, sexual, and platonic. With The Color Purple being one of the first and most accredited black feminist novels it is important for the reader to gain context and insight into the period in which it was written, the conservative time of the 1980s. The 1980s was a time of third wave feminism and a time where, after many years, black feminists began to come out of the woodwork.
It is understood that blacks have been oppressed for centuries. Audre Lorde argues that within the black community women are also discriminated against despite the homogenous frontage that the black community wishes to portray. For these women and for many others, there is a lifelong struggle against those who judge them as inferior. Audre Lorde also argues in “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House”, that it is crucial not only to recognize difference ... ... middle of paper ... ... instead of accepting the difference. Black lesbian women destroy themselves by keeping their sexuality hidden so they won’t be seen as different.
Morrison thought so but the little girl disagreed. The main conflict in this novel is about Black women that become the central object of oppression as black women characters in the novel are described as the victim of different sex or gender and also the victim of class and race that are imposed on them. The Bluest Eye is linked to the Black Power movement of th... ... middle of paper ... ... 1947. Davis, Cynthia. “Self, Society and Myth in Toni Morrison’s Fiction,” Contemporary Literature, 23, 3 (1982).
The fundamental notion of the female writer evolved within the nineteenth century when women were, and continued to be, considered as inferior beings when compared to their male counterparts. This is especially noticeable within the literary canon, where female writers are sparsely included in ‘reputable’ works of literature, let alone incorporated into any canon at all. Virginia Woolf, in her essay titled “In a Room of One’s Own” (1925), details the apparent trials and tribulations that female writers in the Victorian era experience when attempting to become recognized within a literary community. The female author is revisited during the second-wave feminist movement by Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar in their psychoanalytic text, “Infection in the Sentence” (1979), which focuses on the “anxiety” associated with the act of writing as a woman. The approach to identifying the complex social constructs applied to women writers differ due to Woolf’s insistence on androgynous writing in order to unify perceived male and female characteristics, whereas Gilbert and Gubar celebrate distinctly feminine literature as a means to encourage an active literary community of women.
Rhys herself says that she wanted to rewrite the story of marginalized Jamaican woman, who is misrepresented and silenced by a western writer. I think it gives me a valid reason to call him Rochester, who is the husband of Bertha Mason in Jane Eyre, and is responsible for this unfortunate woman’s descent to madness and imprisoned life in his attic. My intention is not to narrow down the possible complication and freedom to interpret an unmanned character in Wide Sargasso Sea but to illuminate and extend the idea that Rhys puts forward in complicating Jane Eyre’s silenc... ... middle of paper ... ...cism." A History of Literary Criticism: Fron Plato to the Present.
Otten, Terry. The Crime of Innocence in the Fiction of Toni Morrison. University of Missouri Press. Columbia and London, 1989. Peach, Linda.
In fact, Disney falls for this portrayal of female Natives when the animated Pocahontas heroically covers Smith's body with her own, defying her father the c... ... middle of paper ... ...-Miller, Anna. "Caretaking and the Work of the Text in Linda Hogan's Mean Spirit."SAIL. 6 3 (Fall 1994): 37-48. Donovan, Kathleen M. Feminist Readings of Native American Literature: Coming to Voice. Tuscon: U of Arizona Press, 1998: 76-120.
Fiction and Folklore: The Novels of Toni Morrison. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1990. Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998.