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The Europeans Union (EU) has been as divisive as much as it has brought Europe together. Opinion polls within counties such as the UK have shown that the EU is unpopular (YouGov 2011). Yet, the EU has opened up territorial borders, and united Europe within one monetary bloc. Euroscepticism is a wide-ranging belief encompassing any criticism of the EU (McCormick 2011). It criticises both the structure and the policies of the EU. Solidarity is the concept that there is a cultural homogeneity within a certain group of people (Jary and Jary 2000). Solidarity is ‘situated … at the crossroads between ‘liberty’ and ‘equality’, between ‘self-interest’ and ‘altruism’.’ (Ferrera 2008) Solidarity is known to occur within a state, as citizens share a uniform socioeconomic and political system. International solidarity can take on two forms; transnational sovereignty, and member state sovereignty. Transnational sovereignty is the common sharing of an ideology within a population. Member state solidarity involves active participation and cooperation between nation-states. The level of cooperation is above that of participating within an intergovernmental organisation. This essay will outline solidarity within the EU. It will then analyse the impact of euroscepticism on solidarity. This will look at how euroscepticism has affected solidarity beyond nation-states. This essay will argue that solidarity is possible beyond the nation-state.

Literature Review:
Many authors have examined solidarity within the European Union. Ferrera concludes that solidarity beyond the nation-state has grown (2008). She basis this on a study of the EU, and the growth of member state sovereignty. Sangiovanni also examines the EU, concluding that the EU...

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... countries; the UK, Greece and Spain (Torreblanca, Leonard et al. 2013). But the vast majority of other European countries are moderately Eurosceptic (Torreblanca, Leonard et al. 2013).

Solidarity is possible beyond the nation-state. The development of European institutions has solidified solidarity within the European Union. European citizens have more common ground with one another since European integration. Solidarity can be seen within Europe through number of different examples, such as the European ‘Welfare State’ and the CFSP. This solidarity continues despite the rise of Euroscepticism. Euroscepticism is a challenge to solidarity, but a challenge which European solidarity can defeat. Eurosceptic elements of the community may continue into the indefinite future, but the European model has shown that solidarity can exist beyond the nation-state.

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