The enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004 and 2007 has been termed as the largest single expansion of the EU with a total of 12 new member states – bringing the number of members to 27 – and more than 77 million citizens joining the Commission (Murphy 2006, Neueder 2003, Ross 2011). A majority of the new member states in this enlargement are from the eastern part of the continent and were countries that had just emerged from communist economies (EC 2009, Ross 2011), although overall, the enlargement also saw new member states from very different economic, social and political compared to that of the old member states (EC 2009, Ross 2011). This enlargement was also a historical significance in European history, for it saw the reunification of Europe since the Cold War in a world of increasing globalization (EC 2009, Mulle et al. 2013, Ross 2011). For that, overall, this enlargement is considered by many to have been a great success for the EU and its citizens but it is not without its problems and challenges (EC 2009, Mulle et al. 2013, Ross 2011). This essay will thus examine the impact of the 2004/2007 enlargements from two perspectives: firstly, the impact of the enlargements on the EU as a whole, and thereafter, how the enlargements have affected the new member states that were acceded during the 2004/2007 periods. Included in the essay will be the extent of their integration into the EU and how being a part of the Commission has contributed to their development as nation states. Following that, this essay will then evaluate the overall success of the enlargement process and whether the EU or the new member states have both benefited from the accessions or whether the enlargement has only proven advantageous to one th... ... middle of paper ... ...ion). Pp 5-37; 49-78; 111-134; 151-195. Forgue, D.G., Kehoskie, N.S. 2007. ‘Enlargement Fatigue in the European Union’. International Law News. Vol 36 (2). Spring 2007. Pp 1-2. Mulle, E.D., Wedekind, G., Depoorter, I., Sattich, T., & Maltby, T. 2013. ‘EU Enlargement: Lessons from, and prospects for’. IES Working Paper 3. Pp 8-39. Murphy, A.B. 2006. ‘The May 2004 Enlargement of the European Union: View from Two Years Out’. Eurasian Geography and Economics. Vol. 47 (6). Pp 635-646. Neueder, F. 2003. ‘Costs and Benefits of EU Enlargement’. Intereconomics. July/August. Pp 190-195. Ross, G. 2011. ‘Enlargement: Triumphs and Trials’. The European and its Crises. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Pp 47-59. Obuljen, N. 2004. ‘Why we need European Cultural Policies: the impact of EU enlargemtn on cultural policies in transition countries’. European Cultural Foundation. Pp 16-40.
...ifferent story of the EU that has not been focused on in other books or papers. This original, unbiased approach allows the reader to put the EU in a historical perspective that also helps understanding at least the changing forces. In addition, it seems that the author wants to make the public or his audience comfortable with the idea of uncertainty that has been affecting the EU. His second part shows how the current shape was not only the result of political or economic reasons, but also a response of a changing external environment. Moreover, the idea of purgatory as well as the philosophical references and analogies gives the book an exciting, unique demission that links politics, history, and philosophy. However, it would be interesting if the author has included technical analysis and incorporated political science theories to draw policy recommendations.
It is well known that after World War II, states began to move away from the trends of nationalism that had brought on conflict in the first place. Across large parts of Europe, there is instead great support for federalism and get support for integration and interdependence. In 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community was created, followed by the establishment of European Economic Community in 1957. With allies being made and different treaties and agreements being signed, Europe was definitely becoming a ‘federation’. In 1973, Britain joins the EEC along with Denmark and Ireland. The European Union is then formally established by the Maastricht in 1993 and gains its 28th member, Croatia by July 2013. When a referendum was taken in the UK regarding joining the EU the vote was two-to-one in favour. The benefits of joining of the EU were clear. The UK would benefit not only in an economic sense but also politically and socially. However, in recent times, opinions have changed. There is now debate as to whether the UK should remain n member of the EU. More and more people are speaking in favour of the United Kingdom leaving the EU and standing on its own. While there are persuasive arguments for and against, it could still be argued that the argument against...
Today this European Union is a region on the rise, an area where economic and social progress are finally overcoming centuries of strife and difficulty. The dream of countless conquerors and idealists has finally been achieved with exemplary result, and new nations are now lining up at the doorstep of Europe to join this Union. It seems only natural now to improve the Union the best way possible, through the physical enlargement of its territory.
There has been much debate surrounding the subject of Enlargement with regards to the European Union (EU) due to the political, institutional, cultural and economic factors that are involved. This essay looks at the way in which businesses from EU-15 countries have been able to exploit the increased number of consumers, the possibility of relocation for lower production and labour costs and the cross-border supply chains. There will also be focus on how the liberalisation, migration of labour and integration of markets for goods, services and capital has affected business.
The European Union stands on the threshold of unparalleled change over the coming years. The next waves of enlargement will be unprecedented in nature and continental in scale. This process has gained so much political momentum that it is now irreversible.
Ukraine has, since the ‘eastern’ enlargement rounds, as well as since the Orange Revolution, rightly captured the EU’s interest. First, with a population of well over forty million, Ukraine is the largest non-Muslim European country (if we disregard Russia) that is still available for enlargement. It can therefore boost the size of the EU market...
Although the European Union consists of a large variety of institutions, the most important institution is the European Commission. Established in 1958 and based in Luxemburg and Brussels, this hybrid institution (executive and bureaucratic) “epitomizes supranationalism and lies at the center of the EU political system” (Dinan, 2010, p. 171). It has a substantial bulk of responsibilities and carries out these responsibilities with a vast number of constituents, acting as the executive for the EU. These responsibilities include anything from drafting and initiating policy to managing the financial framework of the EU, and can have a large impact on the other institutions of the EU. In order to “promote the general interests of the Union,” the Commission strives to unify the interests of the member states and is continually working for implementation and harmonization of EU law (Dinan, 2010, p. 191).
Europe will not run the 21st century because of a combination of economic, institutional, and cultural factors. However, for the purpose of this paper, I will focus on the economic aspects of European society that will impede EU ascendency. I do not believe that the EU will cease to exist in the coming century, but I do believe it will become obsolete because it will be unable to make the necessary changes to their demographic problems, defense policies, and economic culture in response to the increasing American ascendency. Europe has long been known as the continent home to the great powers of the world. From Caesar to Napoleon to the British Empire, the European empires have continuously been at the helm of the ship of progress. The wars of the 20th century however, left Europe in a wake of destruction and chaos period before. The continent was devastated and had little hope to recover. In this new era of European descent, the great American Era came into existence. The US, one of the remaining superpowers, became the helping hand that Europe needed. With the aid allocated by the Marshall Plan and the creation of programs and institutions, Europe had a future. The creation of the European Union (EU) united the European countries over the common goal of preventing war another war. The United States intended for these programs to be a stepping-stone to build the economic and institutional powers of Europe, because a stronger Europe was good for the US. However, instead of using these as a springboard to create self-reliant union, the EU remains reliant on US military and hard power to support them their social efforts.
The process of EU enlargement has developed through the different rounds of enlargement. Applicant member states are required to adopt a total version of the acquis communautaire, as opposed to older member states who had more time to adapt and could opt-out in some cases. Political steadiness has become an increasingly important factor to consider in recent enlargement rounds. Starting in 1994, after the demise of communism, former soviet nations sought to link their economic futures with the EU. Communism had isolated them from the world and they decided to jump into the EU bandwagon, especially for its presence in the international market in today’s globalized economy. Inside Europe, the wealth d...
The European Union has a population that has about 160 million more people than that of the United States (www.internetworldstats.com/stats4.htm). With their willingness to work together the sky is the limit for this union of countries. There were some doubts about what would happen with the addition of 10 new member states and what could happen to them as well as the old members economically. Would these new members drag down the prosperous European economy? The answer to that is no. Economically the gains are quite clear for these new EU member countries. Last year they saw their collective GDP rise 5 percent, from the 3.7 percent the year before. Further more many economists are predicting further increases of more than 4 percent in the year of 2005. With this rapid increase of GDP it is increasing at more than twice the rate of the old 15 European Union members. Individually these countries have also been having great economic success. Latvia’s GDP is estimated to have grown around 8.5 percent. Not to mention that half of the new member countries have had more than double the increase than that of the average increase for EU countries which is about 2.4%. (europa.eu.int/enlargement/memo_en.htm).