The purpose of this essay is to firstly give an overview of the existence of inequalities of health related to ethnicity, by providing some evidence that ethnic inequality in health is a reality in the society and include definitions of keywords. Secondly, I will bring forward arguments for and against on the major sociological explanations (racial discrimination, arefact, access to and quality of care) for the existence of health inequalities related to ethnicity. Thirdly, I would also like to take the knowledge learnt for this topic and brief outline how this may help me in future nursing practice. First of all, it is important to consider the whole aspect of ethnicity as it has other elements such as race and culture which goes along side this concept. Barry and Yuill (2008, p128) both state that ethnicity is “a common cultural heritage that is sociology learned and constructed”. This is what partly defines an individual socially. In terms of race, this is a biological differentiation between people which is determined by their genetic make-up, this differentiation can be based on skin colour or physical differences (Culley and Dyson, 2005). Whereas, according to Kelly and Nazroo (2008, p 161) they state that culture is tied to ethnicity, “it consist of shared experiences, beliefs and values”. This could involve also some sort of guidelines or norms which have been passed on generations. Looking at these three concepts may seem to be straightforward; however, todays healthcare profession seems to be struggling to take on these concepts in order provide “cultural competent care for their patients” (Kelly and Nazroo 2008, p. 159) First of all, there are many issues which influence the ethnic inequalities in health whi... ... middle of paper ... ... [Accessed 6 January 2012] 8. Hilton. C (1996) Collection ethnic group data for inpatients: is it useful? British Medical Journal (clinical research ed.) [pdf] 313 (7062), pp. 923 – 925. Available through: MEDLINE [Accessed 6 January 2012] 9. Kelly, M and Nazroo, J (2008) Ethnicity and health. In Graham, S. ed. Sociology as applied to medicine. 6th ed. London: Saunders, pp. 159 - 175 10. Smith, D et al (2000) Ethnic inequalities in health: A review of UK epidemiological evidence. Critical Public Health. [pdf] 10 (4) pp. 375 – 408. Available through: Taylor and Francis Online [Accessed 28 November 2011] 11. Steinbach, R (2009) Equality, equity and policy [online] Health Knowledge. Available at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4c-equality-equity-policy/inequalities-distribution [Accessed 3 January 2012]
In a society where one can get on a plane and be halfway around the world in a day, it is likely that everyone has encountered someone who looks different from them, whether it is skin color or other physical features. Some people of course look more alike than others and that is where skin color has been used as a tool to differentiate people from different parts of the world. However, this has led to many horrific situations of racism in the past that resulted in slavery and genocides throughout the world. Race as relating to humans can be defined as “a family, tribe, people, or nation belonging to the same stock” or “a class or kind of people unified by shared interests, habits, or characteristics” or even “a category of humankind that shares certain distinctive physical traits” (Merriam Webster Online). With all of these varying definitions of race it is easy to see how problems arise because of it. So what is race based medicine? Race based medicine is “the practice of using race or ethnic origin as a distinguishing feature of populations or individuals seeking health” (Cohn 552). This practice can be seen in the clinic, especially with certain diseases like sickle cell anemia which is more prevalent in black populations, cystic fibrosis which is increasingly common in people of north European descent, and finally Tay-Sachs disease which is highly associated with Ashkenazi Jewish populations (Collier 752). As with many topics there are people that have taken a stand on either side of the race based medicine debate. There are those scientists who are on the side that “understanding the unique patterns of genes across patient populations defined by race will help identify population...
Health disparity is one of the burdens that contributes to our healthcare system in providing equal healthcare to everyone regarding of race, age, race, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status to achieve good health. Research reveals that racial and ethnic minorities are likely to receive lower quality of healthcare services than white Americans.
Although authors Canning & Bowser wrote the article “Investing in Health to Improve the Wellbeing of the Disadvantaged” to oppose Marmot’s article “The Marmot Review,” their above quote also debate points raised by other public health researchers such as Brunner and Krieger. The quote states that the health disparities from different populations results from lack of access to quality and affordable healthcare. This is partially true, but as the analyses of Marmot & Brunner and Krieger suggest, social exclusion due to race and economic status, the population’s work and childhood environment, in addition to other social factors, lead to problems in the medical care system (Marmot 3). In other words, health gradient is not only an indication of health systems failing but is also a result
Although ethnic minorities have access to Health Care’s such as GP’s and Hospitals, it does not mean that they get equal care to the White British groups. Pilgrim and Rogers have noted “Black People have different perceptions of services from white users, whether one of mistrust or of cynicism about the quality of treatment they might receive” (Barry,A.M and Yuill, C: 2012) Afro- Caribbean group tend to not see GP’s or other healthcare professions, men tend to just let things health and women tend to use home remedies. In Donovan’s research with Black People’s Health, Men say they do not go to GP’s because they do not like doctors and because of the waiting times. Carlton “I don’t like waitin when I’m sick, I’d rather just go home, sleep it off” (Donovan, J: 1986) Black minorities having a high percentage in mental illnesses, Black people are both over represented in admissions to psychiatric hospitals (Bhui et al. 2003), more likely to be admitted compulsorily and placed in secure units, and more likely to have been in conflict with the police (Barry, A.M and Yuill, C: 2012) Because they are seen as threatening and aggressive. As a result, ethnic minorities not just Black Minorities make less use of psychiatric services than white people. (Donovan, J:
Townsend, P., Whitehead, M. and Davidson, N. (eds) (1992) Inequalities in Health: the Black Report and the health divide, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
The disparities in the healthcare system contribute to the overall health status disparities that affect ethnic and racial minorities. The sources of ethnic and racial healthcare disparities include cultural barriers, geography differences, or healthcare provider stereotyping. In addition, difficulties in communication between health care providers and patients, lack of access to healthcare providers, and lack of access to adequate health care coverage
“Questioning the ostensibly unquestionable premises of our way of life is arguably the most urgent of the services we owe our fellow humans and ourselves” (Bauman, 1998, p. 5). As a result, my way of life and the health care services I provide are shaped by my personal assumptions and beliefs while influenced by my father, mother, and their ancestors. Consequently, this paper will evaluate my personal assumptions and beliefs regarding my culture, religion, and diversity and how these factors influence how I view myself, patients, members, and my community. Lastly, an assessment and plan of care for specific individuals, groups, and communities, using appropriate epidemiological principles will be presented.