Johnson, R 2014, ‘Kant's Moral Philosophy,’ The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Spring Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), .
Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics discusses virtues and their importance in life. He explains what it takes for a person to develop the right traits to be “good”. Aristotle wrote about this theory of Virtue Ethics in around 340 BC (Aristotle). However, after the renaissance period this way of thinking was soon forgotten as common theories became about the acts rather than the person itself. As new religions arose and society began to follow laws and moral codes, people started to neglect Aristotle 's way of examining life (Rachel 's, 2014, page 157). As people began to think differently, their theories changed as well. Now modern theories rely more on the acts themselves and Aristotle’s theory of Virtue Ethics is questioned as a valid theory because it does exactly the opposite. Critics of Virtue Ethics state that it does not seem to give straight answers to our everyday problems because it does not have set rules. However, with insight from people like James Rachels and Rosalind Hursthouse, it is obvious that Aristotle developed
According to Morrison and Furlong, normative ethics discovers what is right and wrong and guides decision making for all situations in many areas including health care. A normative ethical theory that this research will discuss is virtue ethics in the American health care system. The purpose of this research is to develop potential for excellence and to find the highest good for humans by doing what is right short-term, long-term, and to compete globally (Morrison & Furlong, 2013). Giving certain situations each theory can provide tools to assist in decision-making but virtue ethics concentrates on excellence and perfection.
In an earlier section of this paper, we came to understand that humans, like all other natural things, have a function unique to themselves. For humans, we found, this function is to act in accordance with their rational faculties and to do this excellently was to act virtuously. It is clear from this and from the discussion in the preceding paragraph that Aristotle’s account of virtue is based on this idea that things from nature are for something, which is to say that things from nature (like humans) must be for some end (or ultimate goal). Our end is happiness, and we achieve that by living in accordance with our rational faculties. The tie-in is obvious. So I conclude that Aristotle’s ethics are deeply rooted in his natural philosophy.
Virtue theory is the best ethical theory because it emphasizes the morality of an individual in which their act is upon pure goodness and presents as a model to motivate others. Aristotle was a classical proponent of virtue theory who illustrates the development habitual acts out of moral goodness. Plato renders a brief list of cardinal virtues consisting of wisdom, temperance, courage, and justice. This ethical theory prominently contradicts and links to other theories that personifies the ideal being. However, virtue theorists differ from their own expression of these qualities yet it sets a tone that reflects on the desire to express kindness toward others.
Whether put simply or scrutinized, morality cannot be defined simply by looking at it from one or two perspectives. One must acknowledge the fact that there are several different factors that affect judgment between “right” and “wrong”. Only after taking into account everything that could possibly change the definition of righteousness can one begin to define morality. Harriet Baber, a professor at San Diego State University, defines morality as “the system through which we determine right and wrong conduct”. Baber refers to morality as a process or method when she calls it a “system”. In saying “we” she then means to say that this concept does not only apply to her but also to everyone else. Through morality, according to her, one can look at an action, idea, or situation and determine its righteousness and its consequences.
Aristotle presents a system of virtue ethics in Nicomachean Ethics. This work presents a prescriptive theory with the aim of showing how humans may reach a proper state of happiness in which the natural human end is fulfilled. This end is regarded as an end in itself to which subordinate ends are related. This master end itself is understood as a type of activity rather than a state that can be achieved with a limited series of actions, and this activity is described as a general practice of acting well in accord with reason. The Ethics launches an inquiry into what makes human happiness, or eudaimonia, possible, and Aristotle believes this is the highest good for mankind. Aristotle expresses this good as being the highest end that action reaches for, which is something self-sufficient, and he suggests that to understand action we should understand function. He presents his concept of the human function and says that humans must function well in order to reach the highest good. Functioning well is what is understood as virtue, and so his system of virtue ethics is overall concerned with humans functioning well.
The term "virtue" has traditionally been used to designate morally good character traits such as benevolence, charity, honesty, wisdom, and honor. Although ethicists, past and present, do ...
Philosophies of the ethical theory are numerous but to begin the study of one particular ethical theory, we must understand what the concept of ethics means. The ethical theory focuses on standards of right and wrong that help determine what why one should do not based on laws, feelings, religion, culture or science, but upon what is the right thing in a given situation (Velasquez et al., 2015). To further this investigation looking at ethics from a Christian worldview Rae (2013) defines ethics as “primarily the task of discerning, or discovering, right and wrong both from God’s word in God’s world” (P. 55). Therefore, discussion and investigation of Aristotle’s ethical theory Virtue Ethics will commence.
Individuals are not born with an ability to understand moral values and apply moral standards. As people mature, their physical, emotional, and cognitive abilities develop and so does their ability to deal with moral issues. Aristotle, an early Greek thinker who proposed one of the most influential theories of ethical thinking in the West, argued that our moral abilities which he called virtues or morally good habits, develop solely through constant practice and repetition, in the same way, he argued, humans acquire their moral abilities and when they are taught and habituated by their families and communities to think, feel and behave in morally appropriate ways. Such vitally important human values as courage, generosity, self-control, temperance,