This principle promotes a life of more pleasure than pain by choosing actions that produce more happiness. These are conscious actions made that follow a life of utility and act in accordance with the “Greatest Happiness Principle.” Though Mill’s critics would argue that Utilitarianism is not a reasonable foundation for morality by not fulfilling a life of happiness, creating selfish or expedient people, and reducing human experience to animals, I would have to disagree. This principle promotes happiness and pleasure for all, along with aiding individuals to be less selfish, and an even slate for people of all characters. I find the “Greatest Happiness Principle” to be a relevant and altruistic foundation of morality. There is an emphasis on lives containing more pleasure than pain under the rule that one person cannot put their own happiness above others.
I will argue that Epicurus’s version of happiness is false and Nozick’s Happiness helps show that. Epicurus’s version of happiness is the lack of pain and the meeting the basic needs. Epicurus also believes in having pleasurable things in life. Nozick’s shows how happiness is more than just pleasure or pain. He also shows how happiness is not the only important thing in life.
“A good will is not a good because what of effects or accomplishes because of its fitness to attain some proposed end but only because of its violati... ... middle of paper ... ...ately lights upon what is in fact in common interests and in conformity with duty and hence honorable, deserves praise and encouragement but not esteem; for the maxim lacks moral content, namely that of doing such actions not from inclination.” (Page, 11, Kant) Second, possessing and maintaining one's moral goodness is the very condition under which anything else is worth having or pursuing. Intelligence and even pleasure are worth having only on the condition that they do not require giving up one's fundamental moral convictions. The value of a good will thus cannot be that it secures certain valuable ends, whether of our own or of others, since their value is entirely conditional on our possessing and maintaining a good will. Indeed, since it is good under any condition, its goodness must not depend on any particular conditions obtaining. Thus, Kant points out
Ext... ... middle of paper ... ...ific actions that foster happiness. For the Epicureans, it is essential to remove pain from the body and limit mental anxiety in order to maintain happiness. For the Stoic, the pursuance of virtue ultimately gives rise to happiness. In my opinion, the Stoic argument overcomes the argument of the Epicureans and is successful in prescribing a way of life that is conducive to happiness. The Stoic school differentiates between virtues and feelings, making it desirable to humans.
Virtue ethics revolves around the concept of perfect happiness. It concerns the good for the self. Acc... ... middle of paper ... ...o the whole”. From the point of view of the whole of utilitarian, the individual interests of others within society do not have much preference as well. When taking these elements to its logical conclusion, one must accept that humans should give equal value for all human beings.
One justifies a group of people in order to help a bigger group. And the other does not allow cases when causes harm to other people. It takes advantage of our happiness for the society. Society need good in deed, it is meaning to have a great happiness rather than sadness, not everything will have too unhappy just because of one little mistake. Everyone has a choice whether they want to be happy or not but most of all action is right.
To contest, I would start by reminding of the central values of utilitarianism, mainly on the idea of the greatest happiness principle and of the greatest overall happiness. Morally, the correct decision is the one that brings about the most happiness. And while thinking small I could see how one could assume that that might only mean the happiness of those directly involved, in actuality it tells us that it refers to all people equally and does not put any extra emphasis on people that are significant to the person, or even the person themselves. Therefore, if something was of some benefit to you and it could potentially be of some benefit
For utilitarianism the entirety of moral inquiry lies in the possession of happiness. But it is important to realize that to Mill Individual happiness is secondary to the happiness of the society as a whole. Furthermore, he argues that even though the "noble character" of an individual may give him dissatisfaction it is desirable because “there can be no doubt that it makes other people happy” (Mill). Even though nobleness of character may decrease the pleasure for an individual, the aggregate happiness increases from the presence of such character. Accordingly, happiness is not only the promotion of pleasure but also the absence...
In theory, laissez-faire allows all people to attain the level of prosperity they want and use their self-interest to do so. Upon further examination, it is found to be the opposite, that not all people are equally gifted this opportunity. Individuals have motivation, they are capable of thinking of possible outcomes to their decisions and they act in accordance with their own self-interests. The motivation and free will of a person plays a role in their decisions and thus, the individual can be an independent and effective force (Coldwell). Smith believed in the natural harmony of interest, where “what is good for the happiness of the individual is also good for society and vice versa, because people will unintentionally serve society’s needs as they pursue their own self-interest without government intervention” (Magstadt).
As a society, we generally see ourselves as intelligent moral beings who don’t typically partake in negative actions. However, one person can think they are right in their actions and morals, but deem another person’s actions or morals unfit. Act utilitarianis... ... middle of paper ... ...s. I believe that this moral theory makes the most sense and it is what most people rely on when making important decisions. Since the future is unpredictable, this theory allows us to use our own judgment regardless of duties or outcomes. In our lives, people generally do as they want or believe is right, to produce what they think will create satisfaction and happiness.