Describe the difference between EMR and Clinical Information Systems (CIS). What are the advantages and disadvantages of CIS’s?
EMR is an electronic record of patient health information that is created by each encounter in any healthcare setting (Menachemi & Collum, 2011). Information in the EMR includes patient progress notes, medications, problems, vital signs, immunizations, laboratory and radiology reports and past medical history (Menachemi & Collum, 2011).
The Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and strategic ways patients can be engaged in their health decision-making
Electronic Health Records Today
Electronic health records is medical information recorded on computers, the data consists of a variety of data, medical history, medication, allergies, diagnoses, immunizations, labs, radiology, vital signs, billing information, and personal statistics weight and age. The EHR is designed to help with medical errors. It helps reduce errors with allergies to a medication. Also help with reading legibility and eliminate the lost forms and paperwork. It allows for the patients history to be viewed by several doctors.
For years now, the healthcare system in the United States have managed patient’s health records through paper charting, this has since changed for the better with the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) system. This type of system has helped healthcare providers, hospitals and other ambulatory institutions extract data from a patient’s chart to help expedite clinical diagnosis and providing necessary care. Although this form of technology shows great promise, studies have shown that this system is just a foundation to the next evolution of health technology. The transformation of EMR to electronic heath record system (EHR) is the ultimate goal of the federal government.
A. EHR Definition
Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a digital collection of patient health information instead of paper chart that captures data at the point of collection, supports clinical decision-making and integrates data from multiple sources in any care delivery settings. The health record includes patient’s demographics, progress notes, past medical history, vital signs, medications, immunizations, laboratory data and radiology reports. National Alliance for the Health Information Technology defines EHR as, “ an electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be created, managed, and consulted by authorized clinicians and staff across more
Electronic Health Record Paper
According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), “an EHR is an electronic version of a patients medical history, that is maintained by the provider over time, and may include all of the key administrative clinical data relevant to that persons care under a particular provider, including demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data and radiology reports”. (www.cms.gov, 2012). EHRs will replace paper health care records, in aid to help health caregivers provide quality patient care.
Imagine a soldier reporting to sick call at his Battalion Aid Station to be seen for a reoccurring knee injury. He has been seen and treated for this injury on numerous occasions previously. When reporting, the medic asks if the soldier has his medical records. The soldier tells the medic that he turned them in to the hospital when he received physical therapy. After a few phone calls, the medic determines that he cannot find the soldiers medical record. Now all previously documented medical treatments have been lost and have to be recreated. In the mid-90s, this was a common occurrence. Since then, military medical records have evolved. Electronic Health Records (EHR) were introduced to the military. “EHRs are real-time, patient-centered records that make information available instantly and securely to authorized users” (healthit.gov, n.d.). Introduction of EHRs and their related systems, such as Medical Communication for Combat Casualty Care (MC4) system, has transformed healthcare into a more efficient and reliable system versus the traditional paper system that had many flaws. The systems such as MC4 and EHRs have become more efficient and reliable by making transfer of patient records to another Health Care Provider (HCP) or Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) more efficient, continuity of patient care between HCP drastically improved, medical record storage facilities and patient administration personnel decreased, and almost no errors occur with patient documentation and records.
Risk identification and assessment, risk quantification and measurement; risk analysis, monitor and reporting, risk capital allocation, risk management and mitigation.
Risk management would help to identify and then manage threats that could severely impact or bring down the organization. "This could be done by reviewing operations of the organization, identifying potential threats to the organization and the likelihood of their occurrence, and then taking appropriate actions to address the most likely threats" (McNamara, C., 1999).
Risk management refers to an activity that integrates the identification of risk, its assessment, developing various strategies to manage risk, and the mitigation of various risk through the use of managerial resources (Galorath, 2006). Financial risk management is done by auditor and the audit committee focuses on risks that can be managed using various financial instruments (ISO, 2008). Objective of risk management activity is to decrease various risks related to financial records in companies (SBP, 2003). These risks are as result of numerous types of threats caused by technology, environment, politics, humans, and organizations. Risk is unavoidable element that is present