Childhood trauma has a significant impact on the life of a child. It affects the child’s overall functioning and development, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and social elements. (Perry, Pollard, Blaicley, Baker, & Vigilante, 1995). An overwhelming number of children experience some type of trauma in developmentally critical years which, as previously mentioned, has a major impact on the various aspects of their functioning- specifically their development. Trauma can present itself in a multitude of forms. It may occur that the child lives or lived in a state of poverty or that he suffered a significant injury or the loss of a parent or caregiver. A disheartening number of children experience neglect or abuse in its various forms; …show more content…
According to research done by Gokmen Arslan (2016), childhood “psychological maltreatment” may directly indicate depression, or low self-esteem in adulthood. Childhood abuse and general trauma are two major risk factors of depression in adolescent and adult years (Wingo et al. 2010). While the term “depression” often is used in a colloquial manner, it is not a disease to be dealt with casually. According to Wingo et al., sixteen percent of the population is affected by major depression alone. Additionally, it is one of the top ten causes for disability and untimely death in the United States. This number does not include dysthymia and other mental health issues which brings the percentage up to almost 19% (Reserved, 2016). Roy, Carli, & Sarchiapone (2011) even address studies that show a correlation between childhood trauma and suicide attempts in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between experiencing childhood trauma and substance abuse, which can lead to additional social, emotional, and developmental problems (Calmes, 2012). These psychological challenges are not necessarily caused by childhood trauma; however, they are a result of the “dysfunctional” and “addictive” behaviors that many survivors engage in (Putnam, 2006). Childhood trauma can cause a disrupt in personality development which will in term harm the way that the child develops emotionally, physically, behaviorally, cognitively, morally, and relationally. Therefore, the child may have to work very hard to live a life free of negative consequences from his or her
The Adverse Childhood Experiences study (ACE) conducted by Felitti et al. (1998) proposed that children who experienced maltreatment and neglect along with dysfunctional family systems were at higher risk for developing physiological and psychological problems later in life. The ACE studies demonstrated the collective effects of negative childhood experiences on physical and mental health issues. These disorders include; substance abuse, suicidal ideality, and depression, as well as a host of medical problems (Putnam, Harris & Putnam, 2013). In addition, the study indicated that exposure to two or more adverse childhood experiences is linked to higher rates of smoking, promiscuity, substance abuse, and eating disorders (Anda et al., 2006).
“Each year, Child Protective Services receives reports of child abuse and neglect involving six million children, and many go unreported” (New Directions). The article New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research, explores the need for research of the long-term affects of child abuse and neglect, not only on the victims, but also on their families, future relationships, and other people out in the community. Current research has brought to life the long-term developmental and biological challenges that abuse victims deal with long after an event occurs. A problem that current researchers face when striving to learn more about the long-term affects of child abuse is a lack of funds. Money drives a lot of things in this world, and research is one of those things. The current funds for this type of research has been spread very thin over numerous organizations that deal with child abuse. In this article, New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research, new ideas for spreading these funds have been talked about and plans have been devised.
The individual’s mind has various methods of protecting the self by identifying a scenario and applying certain defense mechanisms. This part of the mind is called the psyche, which acts as the brain’s defense mechanism when one deals with trauma or sadness. Most often, people do not even realize they are being protected by the psyche, because its job is to make one become unaware of their potential intense feelings. This feeling of unawareness is called dissociation, which Martha Stout refers to in her essay, “When I Woke Up Tuesday Morning, It Was Friday.” Dissociation isolates memories so that one can function properly without letting their emotions take over. Stout explains that trauma
In the article “The long-term impact of childhood abuse on internalizing disorders among older adults” Child abuse is a major life stressor that has important consequences for several indices of mental health in adults (Sachs-Ericsson, Verona, Joiner, & Preacher, 2006). The connection between the childhood abuse and adulthood consequences gives insight of just how severe effects it as on you later in life. In the survey a measurement of childhood abuse experiences including emotional, physical and sexual were recorded. The percipients were also analyzed for any low levels of self-esteem issues. After three years the same participants were re-interviewed. They were now diagnosed using the DSM-IV. The diagnoses included internalizing disorders like anxiety and mood disorders. Within the report it includes demographics of abused and non-abused within the older adults. Next, a series of hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed with the internalizing diag- nostic count as the dependent measure and the childhood abuse scale inserted into the model as a predictor, following the inclusion of the covariates. (Sachs-Ericsson, N., Gayman, M. D., Kendall-Tackett, K 2010).
There are many forms of childhood maltreatment. All of which can and do cause both physical and mental issues to the victims. Childhood physical abuse can cause grave physical injuries and even death. Children who are physically abused are more likely to experience cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems as they grow up, such as depression, anxiety, misbehavior, substance abuse problems, and can grow up to be abusers themselves. Many people have a hard time understanding why anyone would hurt a child. Most abusers love their children, but they have less patience then other parents. But the truth is that many children learn violent behavior from their parents and then grow up to be abusers themselves. There is evidence that physical child
Every child deserves a healthy and safe environment. Unfortunately the serious problem of child abuse continues to grow. An average of three children die each day in the United States from injuries caused by their own parent. Types of child abuse and neglect can vary from physical to emotional. Regardless of the type of abuse, the pain and suffering a child endures can last a lifetime. A child’s ability to cope after the abuse can vary depending on their age, the type of mistreatment, and the frequency and severity of the abuse. Child abuse has a negative effect on victims causing risks to their development and our society.
There are many types of developmental trauma that children experience. Though not the most popular form, early loss of a parent or caregiver can be of major concern. Emotional trauma is the result from this and can be devastating to the child as well as leave long-lasting effects. . Externally, we see the behaviors that stem from something more serious biologically. The child, during critical brain develop, can remain in a state of fight, flight, or freeze for extended periods of time, altering the brain development The consequences of this type of trauma are high in number. Children can internalize blame or develop depression or anxiety. Maladaptation later in life is also prevalent. Fortunately, the plasticity of the brain allows for intervention
There are several domains that must be considered when treating a survivor of child abuse: the need for safety and trust, sense of belonging, protection from perceived or actual threats, facing the defendant in court, prevention of revictimization, and empowerment (Sawyer & Judd, 2012). Davis, 2005, states that “children terrorized through sexual abuse, neglect, physical abuse, or wartime atrocities may suffer from lasting wounds, nightmares, depression, and troubled adolescence involving substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression.” Victims of child abuse need to regain their sense of control over their lives. Experiencing healthy relationships, being nurtured by adults and helping them to learn resilience are all interventions that have been well-documented (Sawyer & Judd, 2...
Children experience decreased development in the left brain when traumatic events occur (Network, n.d.). Imagine being a child and growing up with these types of events occurring. A traumatic event in a child’s life can cause a child to experience a long lasting negative effect. Life events are happening everywhere and more often in the lives of children (Understanding Child Traumatic Stress, n.d.). Trauma can cause them to do three things. First, they try to see what the danger is and how serious it is. Secondly there are strong emotional and physical reactions. Thirdly they attempt to come up with what to do that can help them with the danger. Traumatic events can cause a child to develop differently, which effects the young child stage,
How does childhood trauma affect health over a lifetime? To answer this question, let’s dive deeper into childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime and really try to dissect this complex question. The key points that will be discussed in this essay are: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, defining emotional trauma on a child, defining physical trauma on a child, and the role trauma plays in our relationships. Also, discussed in this essay is the effects of trauma on our mental and physical health.
Children's brains are still developing and therefore, trauma has a much more extensive influence on their self, the world and their ability to regulate. The results of a traumatic event Children suffering from symptoms of trauma have difficulty coping and therefore, cannot regulate their behaviors and emotions. They may be clingy and fearful of new situations, easily frightened, difficult to console, and/or aggressive and impulsive. They may also have difficulties with sleeping, acquired developmental skills, and functioning and behavior (NCTSN, 2014). Children who have problematic results from trauma such as child abuse, neglect, death of loved ones or other traumatic experiences may receive a variety of diagnoses (APA, 2000).
They tend to dilute themselves from society and confine their emotions and feelings to a small variety of people, otherwise they become completely isolated from society. They struggle to find happiness and lose focus on the brighter side of life. The main reason that the children form depression and PTSD cases is they “tend to feel powerless and tend to fear the abuser, knowing that they can’t do anything to help the parent in need and to stand up to the abuser” (2001, Levendosky & Graham- Berman). Depending upon the severity of the abuse, the symptoms of depression could potentially not be as profound as others. Children that are introduced to lesser quantities of abuse tend to be on the shy side of the spectrum. While in severe cases of abuse, depression can be so severe that suicidal thoughts may arise in the
Around 5 children die every day because of child abuse (2014). In 2010, 1,537 children died of abuse or neglect, 79.4 percent were under the age of 4 and 47.7 percent were under the age of 1(2014). There are 3.6 million Cases of child abuse reported every year in the U.S. And the number of children involved in these reports is 6 million (Steve Buffone). About 80 percent of 21-year-olds who were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder (2014). Mentally, physically, and psychologically children are fragile and delicate and so is the human brain. Psychologically it is important to meet the needs of the victims but it is equally important to be a great resource for them as well. The trauma of abuse will follow a child all the way into adult hood and help is important. Without help and support children as they grow up are more like to become involved in crime, they are more likely to abuse drugs, and they are more likely to abuse their own children. This literature review will determine the efficiency and effectiveness of services by answering these questions:
Trauma’s can definitely scare someone for a lifetime, but it can also give them depression. The traumatic events during childhood, such as, physical or emotional abuse, and the loss of a parent, may cause changes in the brain that makes a person more susceptible to depression (“Teen Depression”). Physical and emotional abuse is a main cause of trauma because the teen will not be able to trust anyone. Adolescence can be a very turbulent and difficult time, even for the well-adjusted teen. Teenagers with depression can have far-reaching implications, when young people suffer from or with emotional difficulties they aren’t sure how to manage (“10 Common Causes”). A physical abuse from a loved one or relationship has a lot of impact on a teen’s life. In the aftermath of traumatic events that a teen has gone through the teen can become depressed ...