Effect of Dry Machining on Cutting Force

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Introduction
Machining is the most important part of the the manufacturing process. The turning is one of the most commonly employed basic operations in the experimental work of metal cutting. The work material is held in the chuck of a lathe and is rotated. The tool is held rigidly in a tool post and moved at a constant rate along the axis of the feed bar, cutting away a layer of metal to form a desired profile. The components of cutting force acting on the tool are an important aspect of machining. Basic information oncutting force must be known in order to understand the relationship among various cutting force components. Many force measurement devices like dynamometers have been developed which are capable of measuring tool forces with increasing accuracy.
Avila and Abrao (2001) studied the effect of machining of hardened AISI 4340 steel. The work-piece material was heat treated to an average hardness of 49 HRC. Mixed alumina tools were used as cutting tool. The experimental tests were carried out with varying cutting speed ranging from 50 to 100m/min with a constant feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev. and a constant depth of cut of 2mm in rough turning. For finishing, the cutting speed values range from 200 to 400 m/min for a constant feed rate and depth of cut of 0.05 mm/rev and 0.5 mm respectively. The different cutting fluids used were; emulsified without mineral oil, synthetic and emulsified containing mineral oil. The fluids were pumped at a rate of 75l/min. the experimentation concluded that the cutting fluid (emulsifiedwithout mineral oil) resulted in longer tool life compared to dry cutting. At high cutting speeds, the cutting fluid was responsible for reducing the scatter in the surface rough...

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