The process varies when extracting copper from copper ore to obtain a preferred purity level of the final product. However the most common type of process in the United States is called Smelting. This is only achieved once the copper ore has been processed to a specified concentration level. This is done by grinding the ore into a concentration of slurry with chemical agents and water. The copper will float to the top of the slurry mixture when air is blown through the mixture and a frothed layer or a foaming layer allows the copper to attach and overflow the tank, this is called ore benefaction. This is when the concentrated copper gets refined.
Forging, one of many manufacturing process, is where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings. The process begins with starting stock which is heated to its plastic deformation temperature, then upset between dies to the desired shape and size. It is important to note that the forging process is entirely different from the casting (or foundry) process, as metal used to make forged parts is never melted and poured (as in the casting process). During this hot forging process, coarse grain structure is broken up and replaced by finer grains. Mechanical properties are therefore improved through reduction of cast structure, voids and segregation. Forging also provides means for aligning
Aluminized steels possess excellent resistance to corrosion at high-temperature, thus they are widely applied to a variety of fields, such as petroleum pipelines, construction materials, and so on[1-5]. The coating of the aluminized steel plays a great role in the corrosion resistance at high-temperature[6, 7]. The coating is composed of an Al topcoat, Al3Fe and Al5Fe2 phases after hot-dipping pure Al[8-11]. But in the long-term use of aluminized steel, the coating cannot live up to the demands for higher temperature. As the corrosion resistance of the Al-Ni intermetallic layer is superior to the Al-Fe intermetallic layer, the addition of Ni to the bath can be used to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating. The coating after hot-dipping
Screwdrivers are very popular among the hand tools which we use in our daily use. But now a days the screwdriver demands hardness and higher torque values for the meeting the requirements and to compete between the manufacturers. For maintaining both torque and hardness in higher level. there are mainly three key factors for the producing the required type of screwdriver : heat treatment, material and machining processing. On the other hand the most famous type of steel used in the manufacturing of the screwdriver bit are Cr-V type of steel, material wise known as SAE6150 steel. The hardness of this material is known to be HRC52 (+ 0r - ,2) and the value of torque is about 180 - 190 kgf.cm. There are different varieties of tips for a screwdriver which include Robertson ,clutch, .Allen and Torx but very standard types of tips are flat, slotted, straight or flared.
It should be noted that the grain size of the material can be varied by heat treatment process. The billets are exposed to heat treatment with different temperatures (5500C and 6500C) and working times to obtain different grain size. The original microstructure of copper and aluminum is shown in Fig. 6 and Fig 7.
Electrical discharge machining is the process for metals that are hard to machine, because they are hard, tough, fragile or heat-sensitive. An electrical discharge machine is made up of four parts, its power supply, its electrode which is commonly graphite, however, the dust that is made when using graphite has made it necessary for special enclosed cutting zones and powerful suction systems. The servomechanism (or the drive unit) is what controls the electrode’s movement and works to maintain the distance between the part and the electrode, and finally, the dielectric fluid which is a mineral oil that creates a nonconductive film between the electrode and the part. Walker says “The servomechanism maintains a thin gap of about 0.001 between the electrode and the work" (Walker, 2004, 504). This is t...
Soft or ductile metals neck and form the cup-cone fracture shape displayed in figure 2. The study of ductile fracture may be commonly known in terms of the subsequent microvoid nucleation and the growth action, and is simply shown in Figure 3. The confined microscopic cavities are created at the earliest stage of the fracture. These nucleate at admittance, second phase particles and probably at grain limit junctions. Microvoids fuse and form an oblong crack that advances outward to the threshold of the neck. Lastly, an overburden exterior ring of the material is all that is departed to connect the specimen fraction, and it fails by trim. More examinations shows that rounded divots on the flat hole bottom weighted in tension, and stretched egg-shaped divots on the shave lips aligned at 45° (figure 3). In high aerate Face Centered Cubic (FCC) structured and Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) structured metals free of involvement, necking to almost 100% area contraction is achievable.
In Friction stir welding process melting does not occur and joining takes place below the melting temperature of the material. Frictional heat is generated between the wear-resistant welding tool and the material of the workpieces. This heat causes the workpieces to soften without reaching the melting point and allows the tool to traverse along the weld line. Defect free copper welds are achieved by friction stir welding carried out at a constant welding speed of 100 mm/min.. The effect of various input speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Cu–30Zn brass alloy is investigated . Friction stir welding of 5mm thick pure copper plates were done. The characteristics of the microstructure, different heat zones and mechanical properties of welded joints are investigated . The temperature distributions of the weld, Brinell's hardness test, tensile test and microstructure analysis are performed on the welded aluminium alloy
Lead Many elements, like lead, are very important to the structure and formation of many of the products we use. Throughout history, lead has been developed, mined, extracted, and used. Lead, since its finding thousands of years ago, has proven to be a tricky element with many diverse health effects. Scientists have developed products, and processes that still continue to used lead.