The Disenfranchisement of African-American Males in PreK-12 Schools) attempt to address the issues that have led to the Black male being an underachiever and what can be done to resolve these issues and put Black men on the same playing field as their counterparts. Jenkins though somewhat more cynical than Howard offers a comprehensive view of labeling and its effects on the Black male and some concrete solutions to the educational problem. Hooks seems to be speaking more from personal experience than statistical facts and though she offers some solutions to the education problem facing Black males, her solutions are vague at best however all three authors concur that the uneducated Black man is a direct result of some form of labeling. II. Internal Critique The main theme of the three writings is labeling within an Imperialist Patriarchy.
This definition ma... ... middle of paper ... ...ace, culture, identity, community and power in the American society. Works Cited 1. Fields, Barbara, J “Ideology and Race in American History,” in Kousser, J. Morgan and James M. McPherson, eds., _Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward_, Oxford, 1982: 143-177. 2. Holloway, Joseph, E “Africanisms in American Culture_.
Having clarity on a realm of discrimination, we can then imagine the migration of racism stretching from the South to vast regions of the U.S. In the United States, opportunities for the cultural growth of African American men have been absent, because social discrimination continues to exist. In 2005, the phrase “[N]o Child Left Behind” (NCLB), coined by Kathy Emery, reverberated throughout the United States. It was a vision for the education system ... ... middle of paper ... ... Nelson, Claire Nee. “Growing Up Jim Grow: How Black and White Southern Children Learned Race.” Georgia Historical Quarterly.
(1998). “Critical Race Theory, Marginality, and the Experiences of Students of color in Higher Education.” In C. A. Torres and T. A. Mitchell (eds. ), Sociology of Education: Emerging Perspectives. New York: State University of New York Press. Steele, C. & Aronson, J.
New York: Library of America, 1998: 353-403. Bynum, Victoria E. “”White Negroes” in Segregated Mississipi: Miscegenation, Racial Identity, and the Law.” The Journal of Southern History 64.2 (1998) 247-276. Harlan, Louis R. “The Southern Education Board and the Race Issue in the Public.” The Journal of Southern History 23.2 (1957): 189-202. Hope II, John. “Trends in Pattern of Race Relations in the South Since May 17, 1954.” Phylon 17.2 (1956): 103-118.
Introduction Racial discrimination is a real problem in American schools where African American students are segregated and their rights violated in many ways. Racial discrimination is especially advanced in public schools where majority of the students are colored. In these institutions, the government has failed to offer credible support thus subjecting them to serious problems making the learning process close to impossible (Blank et al, p.108). The departments of justice and education have admitted that serious problems are experienced by school going children in most of the American schools. Positive policies on discipline are being put into measure as a way of reducing the cases of racial discrimination as it affects learning of students negatively and eventually leads to failure of the students.
Black students were also bused to predominately White schools disproportionately, causing many African American schools to close (Morris, 1999). Morris further state... ... middle of paper ... ... problem of disproportionate minority representation in special education. The Journal of Special Education, 32(48), 48-51. Serwatka, T.S., Deering, S. & Grant P. (1995). Disproportionate representation of African Americans in emotionally handicapped classes.
One such authority in the field, Dr. Pascal Mubenga, in his essay The Struggle of African American Students (2012), reasons that a difficult road from segregation and slavery has impacted the educational achievement of African American students. Dr. Mubenga supports his reasoning by elaborating on the disadvantages African Americans have been faced with starting centuries ago: “While immigrants were being Americanized, African, Mexican, Native, Asian, and Puerto Rican Americans were increasingly segregated or denied language and cultural rights in public schools" (Mubenga 7). His purpose is to make educators aware of the background their African American students come from in order to make sure that their needs are handled with a much more
Racial and Cultural Test Bias, Stereotype Threat and Their Implications A substantial amount of educational and psychological research has consistently demonstrated that African American students underperform academically relative to White students. For example, they tend to receive lower grades in school (e.g., Demo & Parker, 1987; Simmons, Brown, Bush, & Blyth, 1978), score lower on standardized tests of intellectual ability (e.g., Bachman, 1970; Herring, 1989; Reyes & Stanic, 1988; Simmons et al., 1978), drop out at higher rates (e.g., American Council on Education, 1990; Steele, 1992), and graduate from college with substantially lower grades than White students (e.g., Nettles, 1988). Such performance gaps can be attributed to any number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, academic preparation, and educational opportunities; however, Steele (1997) pointed out that even when background factors are held constant, subsequent achievement remains lower for minority students. Moreover, much research in this area has focused on how African American students’ lack of motivation and negative attitudes contribute to their inferior academic performance (Ogbu, 1990); yet many Black students often report high educational aspirations (Fordham, 1996; Fine, 1991; Ogbu, 1987, 1990; Hauser & Anderson, 1991), even higher than White students of comparable class background (MacLeod, 1995). What remains certain is the urgent need to explain what accounts for the persistent academic underachievement of Black students.
There will be less children born out of wedlock, especially if children are raised up to be God fearing, and are thought to practice abstinence. If we are unable to control all theses at a young age, then we find a method of helping the damaged adults. Considering the fact that am a young black boy myself, I believe that the author has really covered most of the problems young black boys face. One good thing about this book though, the author also provides possible solutions to the problems he listed. This book also helps me understand better the concept of lynches we discussed in my African American class.