Today's education is often viewed as failing in its goal of educating students, especially those students characterized as minorities, including African American, Hispanic, and Appalachian students (Quiroz, 1999). Among the minority groups mentioned, African American males are affected most adversely. Research has shown that when Black male students are compared to other students by gender and race they consistently rank lowest in academic achievement (Ogbu, 2003), have the worst attendance record (Voelkle, 1999), are suspended and expelled the most often (Raffaele Mendez, 2003; Staples, 1982), are most likely to drop out of school, and most often fail to graduate from high school or to earn a GED (Pinkney, 2000; Roderick, 2003). Research has also shown that this record of poor performance by Black male students during their elementary and secondary school years limits their involvement in education at the college level (Cross & Slater, 2000) and correlates strongly with their disproportionately large numbers in the country's jails and penitentiaries (Males & Macallair, 2000; Yeakey, 2002). Adult Black males lead the nation in being undereducated, unemployed (Boyer, 1988; Hornor, 2002; Pinkney, 2000), and incarcerated (Drakeford & Garfinkel, 2000). Black males are also characterized as having more health problems (Kirk, 1986) and dying at a younger age (Boyer, 1988; Hornor, 2002; Kirk, 1986; Pinkney, 2000), regardless of race and gender, than any other group in America. The challenges faced by Black males in American society are well known. What may not be widely recognized is the role America's schools play in perpetuating these problems. The purpose of this paper is to make more generally accessible recent research that attempts to isolate factors leading to conflict between Black male students and increasingly White teaching staff in our public schools (Cooper and Jordan, 2003). This paper also describes ways in which schools and school districts are beginning to implement programs designed to resolve these conflicts. From A historical perspective the unsuccessful journey of the Black male student from public school through to his unfulfilled place in society did not end with Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision that ended de jure school segregation in 1954. Even though a series of civil rights bills in the 1950s and 1960s el... ... middle of paper ... ...ol outcomes among African American male adolescents in Chicago. Urban Education, 38, 538-607. Rosa, M. H. (1994). Relationships between cognitive styles and reading comprehension of expository text of African American male students. The Journal of Negro Education, 63, 546-555. Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in administration of school punishment. Urban Review, 34, 317-342. Staples, R. (1982). Black masculinity: The Black man's role in American society. San Francisco: Black Scholar Press. Swanson, D. P., Cunningham, M., & Spencer, M. B. (2003). Black males' structural conditions, achievement patterns, normative needs, and "opportunities". Urban Education, 38, 608-633. Tyson, K. (2003). Notes from the back of the room: Problems and paradoxes in the schooling of young Black students. Sociology of Education, 76, 326-343. Voelkl, K. E. (1999). Schooling and delinquency among White and African American adolescents. Urban Education, 34, 69-88. Yeakey, C. C. (2002). America's disposable children: Setting the stage. The Journal of Negro Education, 71, 97-101. Endnotes
The Columbian Exchange impacted Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans in many ways. Some of the major components of this exchange were plants, animals, and diseases. The Native Americans was impacted because they did not have immune systems capable of handling diseases such as; small pox, the plague, and yellow fever. This resulted in the population of Native Americans being cut by at least 90% over the course of a couple hundred years and making it easier for foreigners to come in and take over. The animal that helped the Native Americans was the horse. It helped them expand and explore places other than agricultural plains like mountains. The Europeans brought back tobacco. Tabaco then lead to many deaths because of its health issues involved with the use. They also got introduced to tomatoes which people thought for a long time was not edible. Africans acquired potatoes and maize, which became a main staple in Africa.
“As European adventurers traversed the world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries they initiated the “Columbian Exchange” of plants, animals, and diseases.”(P. 26). The Columbian Exchange refers to a period of exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. The exchange of plants, animals, diseases and more modernized technology, beginning after Columbus landing in the Americas in 1492. It lasted through the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Domesticated animals such as cattle, horses, sheep and pigs were introduced to the Americas. The Americas introduced to Europe many new crops such as potatoes, beans, squash, and maize. In time Native people learned to raise European livestock and European and Africans planted American crops. This was the positive effect of the encounter and it was largely responsible for the doubling of the world’s population in the next three hundred years. There were also many negative effects to the “Columbian Exchange” A major consequence was the spread of disease in the New World. Diseases carried by Europeans and Africans devastated the population of the Americas. As Europeans traveled through the Americas epidemics came with them. Typhus, diphtheria, malaria, influenza, cholera, and smallpox killed many of the native people. One example was
Over the years there has been a significant decrease in the percentage of African American male success in higher education. Not only does this effect society as a whole, but more importantly this effects the African- American community as well. The high percentage of uneducated African- American males will result in increased crime rate, shortened life span and overall hard life. However this epidemic can be stopped by looking at the contributing factors of why there is a decrease in African-American male success in higher education and how to change it. Throughout the paper I will be addressing the issues as to why there are not more black men in higher education, by looking at the contributing factors such as environmental stressors, student’s perceptions, racial identity issues, academic and social integration, family upbringing and the media. The attrition rate of African- American male students could be changed and decreased drastically. Increasing our understanding of these differences would enable us to better meet the needs of young black men.
Spielberg was born in Cincinnati on December 18th, 1946. His father was an electrical engineer, and his mother a concert pianist. Steven seemed to get the best elements from both of them. Spielberg had an early fascination with cinema and began making amateur films at a very young age. At 13, he won a local contest for his 40-minute film, Escape to Nowhere. Ironically, Steven was unable to get into a film school, so he settled for majoring in English Literature at California State University. After graduation, he set out to Hollywood, where he was determined to be successful. In 1974, he received his first break for The Sugarland Express. The film went on to win a Cannes Film Festival Award for best screenplay. The following year saw JAWS explode. This very successful horror film, depicting a man-eating shark, captured the attention of the world and has become part of contemporary pop culture. The movie was nominated for Best Picture at the Oscars and won several Oscars for technical categories and for its very distinctive score.
The Columbian Exchange was one of the most influential periods of time in American and world history. Food, plants, animals, metals and a numerous amount of diseases were all brought forth into the New and Old Worlds. The amount of goods and services that were sold and transferred during the years of the Columbian Exchange were uncalculatable. A lot of global change erected from the Columbian Exchange and with the exchange came a never ending connection between the Old and New Worlds that ran deeper than the ocean they had to travel across. There were many new cultural, social, political, and economic connections that were made between the Americas and the Caribbean to Europe, Asia, and Africa. People of different upbringings told stories.
However, not only did the old world and the new world exchange goods that were a gain but the Europeans brought over diseases and it was killing the Population. Smallpox’s was one of the diseases that raised the death rate to 90% and it killed 200 million native people within 100 years of Christopher Columbus arrival in America that was a great loss.
“It's striking that Native Americans evolved no devastating epidemic diseases to give to Europeans in return for the many devastating epidemic diseases that Indians received from the Old World.” - Jared Diamond. This quote means the New World had suffered more than the Old World. The Columbian Exchange had benefits to both New World and Old World, but it was not equally beneficial for both worlds as one benefit more. Because of the exchange millions of Native Americans were killed and forced to work for labor; the Columbian Exchange was not worth it.
Steven Spielberg was born on December 18, 1946, in Cincinnati, Ohio. His parents were Arnold Spielberg and Leah Spielberg, who soon influenced the movies he would make. Surprisingly enough, Steven Spielberg was poor at school. Though, when it came to filmmaking, he was extremely talented. He would often become interested in new filmmaking techniques, just like his father, who would study techniques to get ahead in the field. Steven was Jewish growing up, which would soon help him make one of his best works. Many things, as he grew up, influenced his movies greatly, such as his fears or monsters he knew. His imagination was magnificent; he had many thought-provoking ideas. Steven’s beginning films were home movies that he would film with his $20, 8 mm camera. He would experiment with the camera, such as different lighting, different angles, and other techniques. It was like he was born to film! He soon had an obsession for making movies, especially movies that had the World War 2 theme to it. He even spent most of his free time and his allowance to satisfy his obsession for movies.
Steven was born in Cincinnati, Ohio to a Jewish family which later moved to Phoenix, Arizona. His mother, Leah Adler, worked at a local restaurant while his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electric engineer. Steven also had three younger sisters, Nancy, Anne, and Sue. They were his family but most of the time, his film crew. At a young age, Steven had a passion for filmmaking. He started
It explains that the rationale for this is that more prisons are built as more African American boys enter preschool within the United States. After addressing the issue, the author explains they will be discussing different topics related to the problem. These topics include: Reviewing some of the trouble spots in the developmental progressions of African American boys, discussing the conditions that give rise to the problems, and finally identifying the steps families, schools, and communities are taking to reverse the digression of African American
The message that many African American males receive throughout their lives is that they are unintelligible, uneducable, and dangerous (hooks 2004; Jackson and Moore 2008). With this message being delivered to them every day it is not hard to understand the disparity of those getting higher education and those who do not compared to their white counterparts. These messages can play a role in how their self-image is formed and defined. Other factors include poverty and incarceration. These are not the only factors that affect African American males but these are some of the common factors that affect the educational attainment of African American males. This is should be a concern because there may be something that can be done to prevent the disparity of educational attainment among African American males and white males.
The Columbian exchange was the widespread transfer of various products such as animals, plants, and culture between the Americas and Europe. Though most likely unintentional, the byproduct that had the largest impact from this exchange between the old and new world was communicable diseases. Europeans and other immigrants brought a host of diseases with them to America, which killed as much as ninety percent of the native population. Epidemics ravaged both native and nonnative populations of the new world destroying civilizations. The source of these epidemics were due to low resistance, poor sanitation, and inadequate medical knowledge- “more die of the practitioner than of the natural course of the disease (Duffy).” These diseases of the new world posed a serious
Meanwhile, as the pressure of schools losing their students due to dropout, it is important that the inner city students have the support they need in school or at home, because many years of oppression have kept African-Americans from having the will to do better. Now young African-Americans have that same oppressed feeling in the schools that they are attending. When the students give up it seems as though everyone around them wants to give up. In fact, “In many parts of the country, the problems present withi...
The Columbian exchange was the exchange of slaves, animals, crops, and resources. The Columbian exchange was not as serene and hygienic as explorers and Native American would have liked it. The first reason the Columbian exchange is a significant impact to the European exploration is crops. The east part of the word was growing wheat, barely, rice, and fruit (1). The west of the world was growing potatoes, tomatoes, and fruits (1). The two worlds would trade crops which each other giving the other something they didn’t have. This was not the only things they trade, livestock was also traded. The west part of the world didn’t have a lot of animals and the animals they had weren’t agriculture animals. The animals that Europe sent were horses, cattle, pigs, and sheep (1).The lifestyle of the Native American change when the horses were introduced into their life. The European didn’t send crops and livestock to the new world, they also sent disease. The Europeans sent disease that were nasty, harmful, and very contagious. The European sent disease such as smallpox, Malaria, Diphtheria, and others (1). These diseases were sent to the new world by the ships, people, and especially the pigs. These diseases killed lots of Native American in the New World and was devastating. The Columbian exchange was a great lift for the Europeans because of trade, but not so good for the Native Americans.
How do musicians during the Harlem Renaissance relate to musicians in today’s society and how do they influence them? Musicians relate and influence musicians in today’s society for many different reasons. However, not only do musicians during the Harlem Renaissance relate to musicians in today’s society and influence them but artists, actors, painters and poets in the Harlem Renaissance did also. During the 1920s is when the Harlem Renaissance blossomed in the African American culture, particularly in creative arts and influential movement in African American literary history. Without the Harlem Renaissance eminent people today such as Beyoncé Knowles, Jay-Z, Morris Chestnut, Maya Angelou and Gabrielle Union would not be relevant.