Introduction Over the years there has been a significant decrease in the percentage of African American male success in higher education. Not only does this effect society as a whole, but more importantly this effects the African- American community as well. The high percentage of uneducated African- American males will result in increased crime rate, shortened life span and overall hard life. However this epidemic can be stopped by looking at the contributing factors of why there is a decrease in African-American male success in higher education and how to change it. Throughout the paper I will be addressing the issues as to why there are not more black men in higher education, by looking at the contributing factors such as environmental stressors, student’s perceptions, racial identity issues, academic and social integration, family upbringing and the media. The attrition rate of African- American male students could be changed and decreased drastically. Increasing our understanding of these differences would enable us to better meet the needs of young black men. Summary of Articles African- American males have been underrepresented among college students and degree earners for years, however the reason for this is often misconstrued. The percentages of white high school graduates “In 1998-2000 had jumped to 46. However, only 40 percent of African-Americans and 34 percent of Hispanics in the same age group were attending college” (McGlynn, Angela Proviteira). The question then to pose, is why minority students are not succeeding in college compared to Caucasian students, “Only 47% of Black male students graduated on time from U.S. high schools in 2008, compared to 78% of White male students” (Kafele, B. (2012). Not only were... ... middle of paper ... ...e black men succeed in college rather than why many do not. New York Amsterdam News, 103(14), 29. Kafele, B. (2012). Empowering young black males. Educational Leadership, 70(2), 67- 70. McGlynn, A. (2009). Proven Pathways to Success for Minority Students. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 74(9), 42-45. Saunders, J., Davis, L., Williams, T., & Williams, J. H. (2004). Gender differences in self-perceptions and academic outcomes: A study of african american high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(1), 81-81+. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204653132?accountid=28458 Spradley, P., & ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, W. C. (2001). Strategies for Educating the Adult Black Male in College. ERIC Digest. WOOD, J. (2011). Falling through the cracks. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 28(18), 24.
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In 2001 statistics reported by the United States Department of Education indicated that during 1997-1998 African American students received 8.3% of bachelor’s degrees awarded. Concurrently, Hispanic students as well as Asian or Pacific Islander students received 6.0%, while American Indian/Alaskan Native students only accounted for .7%. Although statistics from agencies who report differ, clearly on a national level, minority students
In today’s society there are many stereotypes surrounding the black community, specifically young black males. Stereotypes are not always blatantly expressed; it tends to happen subconsciously. Being born as a black male puts a target on your back before you can even make an impact on the world. Majority of these negative stereotypes come from the media, which does not always portray black males in the best light. Around the country black males are stereotyped to be violent, mischievous, disrespectful, lazy and more. Black males are seen as a threat to people of different ethnicities whether it is in the business world, interactions with law enforcement or even being in the general public. The misperceptions of black males the make it extremely difficult for us to thrive and live in modern society. Ultimately, giving us an unfair advantage simply due to the color of our skin; something of which we have no control.
Obtaining higher education is regarded as the ultimate symbol of status in the United States (US). Access to a college education in this country is seen as an expression of academic excellence and can provide access to unlimited possibilities. In the US, Ivy Leagues are considered the elite and represent the most powerful ideogram of educational opportunity. According to the National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] (2012), from 1999–2000 to 2009–10, the percentages of both master's and doctor's degrees earned by females increased from 1999–2000 to 2009–10 from 58 to 60 percent and from 45 to 52 percent. The NCES report (2012), found that in 2009-10, of the 10.3 percent Black students who earned Bachelor degrees; 65.9 percent were women. Of the 12.5% of Black students who earned Master’s degree in 2009-10, 71.1 percent were women; and of the 7.4 percent of Black students who earned doctoral level degrees (this includes most degrees previously regarded as first-professional, i.e. M.D., D.D.S., and law degrees), 65.2 percent were women (NCES, 2012)...
Current research and scholarly literature continue to examine various aspects of learning in today’s society (Farkas, Lleras, & Maczuga, 2002). Particular attention is given to research in the educational system, especially with regards to minority students (Fisher, 2005). Considering the on-going social discussions on racial/ethnic disparities, many researchers now seek to explore the relationships and themes that exist in, and influence the academic achievement and school performance of minority students (Farkas et al., 2002; Roscigno & Ainsworth-Darnell, 1999). While this research area may seem fairly new to some due to its increased and continued
The message that many African American males receive throughout their lives is that they are unintelligible, uneducable, and dangerous (hooks 2004; Jackson and Moore 2008). With this message being delivered to them every day it is not hard to understand the disparity of those getting higher education and those who do not compared to their white counterparts. These messages can play a role in how their self-image is formed and defined. Other factors include poverty and incarceration. These are not the only factors that affect African American males but these are some of the common factors that affect the educational attainment of African American males. This is should be a concern because there may be something that can be done to prevent the disparity of educational attainment among African American males and white males.
Today, the United States is still a racially segregated society. Getting into college is the first step in a student’s postsecondary educational journey, an academically strong start in college is the second because grades can either expand or limit opportunities for successfully completing a college degree . College students face many obstacles throughout their pursuit of higher education. Racial Segregation can affect college academic performance in a variety of ways. Segregation represents a major structural feature influencing success in college. Segregation experienced in childhood can influence later academic performance through a rage of channels. Segregation has other, more contemporaneous influences on academic performance. Massey
As cliché as it sounds, it is true that many African American students come from very harsh and poverty stricken environments. They tend to go to under resourced schools as well that do not provide the proper knowledge for them to further their education. And even worse, these schools tend to be segregated since they are usually in the harsher parts of a neighborhood. Sadly, it’s the segregated schools are one of the main reasons why black students decide not to go on to pursue a higher education. According to "The Way Out of the Black Poverty Cycle", a black student that attends an integrated suburban school is six times more likely to graduate compared to a segregated under resourced school. An African Americans family structure and the opinions of family members affects if their decision to further their education as well. Many African American children grow up un...
These observations are important because they helped me realize the two main elements of black students’ lives that make their experience remarkably different than that of their white peers. Black students face additional social stress and the threat of living up to stereotypes about their race. These extra hardships can make their college experience even more burdensome which, in turn, affects their academic success. As I continued to read about the seemingly endless amount of hardships black students face in colleges and universities I became discouraged at finding an adequate solution that would allow them to strive in the same manner as their white peers. I could not have agreed more with the resolve to hold universities accountable for creating an environment that is conducive to the success of black students, cultivates inclusion, and works to destroy the negative stereotypes or doubts about the aptitude of every black
Success as adults starts with a solid foundation as a child. Unfortunately, poor performance results because of poverty. In an article discussing the African-American experience, Williams writes, “African American families when compared to other groups such as the whites and the Asians are the poorest in the country. A large proportion of poverty in the country is felt in the black community” (243). Wealth and performance in individual’s studies are directly related. This means that the more wealth one has, the higher the chance of the children excelling in school and, vice versa. “Black students perform poorly in their studies because of poverty” and lack of resources (Williams 244). Other than poverty, white racism is a reason for the poor performance of black students. In most learning institutions, teaching is done by white teachers. In some cases,
Statistics show that black students are less likely to earn college degrees (Guiffrida & Douthit 2010). Black students are less likely to graduate than Whites at PWIs and may have a lower GPA. At first, many people wrote this off as them not being prepared academically. However, there are many other factors that influence their success at college that stems away from just the academics. Interaction with faculty, family, friends, and other peers in the Black community all contribute to their experience and success at college. The relationship with faculty is key component when looking at their success at school. Previous studies noted that Black students have a difficult time making connections with White faculty members, because they are concerned about the stereotypes the professors may have about them. However, through proper education, awareness, and truly listening to students’ experiences and concerns, this can change and White faculty members can serve as mentors to students of color. Faculty members need to keep an open mind and be aware of their own biases. Having a strong support system at home also contributes to Black students’ successes and retention rates. Family provides emotional, academic, and sometimes financial support. Participation in affinity groups also help Blacks integrate into the campus community. This provides them resources where they can share their experiences, connect
Researchers have illustrated that race plays an integral role in the college experiences of African American students, specifically on predominantly white institutions (Allen 1987; Chavous et al. 2004; Harper 2008; Guiffrida 2003). Studies have found that the racial makeup of the college environment strongly influences African American students’ academic and social experiences and outcomes (Allen 1988; Harper 2008; Guiffrida 2003; Shingles 1979). Interestingly, there is a concern surrounding the type of school environment that fosters the optimal success of African American students. It has been argued that predominantly white institutions provide greater academic resources for its students and require African
By 2020, about two-thirds of employment opportunities in the US will require the applicants to possess post-secondary documents or some form of training that supersedes high school education (Deming, Cohodes, Jennings & Jencks, 2016). However, the current trend in college drop-outs appears to reduce the effectiveness of the U.S to show competitiveness in the global education index. Minorities such as African Americans and Hispanics have lower graduation rates than the Whites. Although the numbers of entries into college have increased lately, the existing disparities in education have diminished college-graduation rates. For instance, racial minorities are largely underrepresented in the colleges and institutions of higher learning (Winters,
The rapidly decreasing number of African Americans in the specialized high schools troubles me. I am convinced that the decrease is not due to intellectual aptitude, but to lack of preparation and confidence. In my final fall semester of middle school, my school did not have the funding to prepare us for the Specialized High School Admissions Test. Instead of the months, or even years, of preparation that more privileged students undergo, my classmates and I received a three-week crash