Describe How a Gene Encoding a Therapeutic Protein Could Be Cloned into a Vector to Allow Expression

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A vector is a recombinant DNA carrier, all types have three generic properties; introduction to the host cell can be accomplished easily, each vector contains a replication origin enabling it to reproduce inside the cell and in order to determine which cells contain the vector a simple assay can be carried out, such as, growing the cells on agar plates. At present, there are many different types of vectors available for use the best expression system depends on the gene involved (Hartl, 2011). Examples of vectors include; Plasmids, Bacteriophages, Artificial chromosomes, bacteria, cell free systems and viruses (Klug et al., 2003). The fundamentals of molecular genetics is centred around the “Central Dogma”, this governs protein expression and demonstrates how genetic information in DNA is expressed in a polypeptide chain as show in Figure 1 below.
DNA does not code directly for proteins it does so through Ribose Nucleic Acid (RNA), a similar molecule to DNA but, the sugar it contains is called ribose, the molecule itself is single stranded and within the nucleotide base Thymine (T) is replaced with Uracil (U) which still binds to Adenine (A) in the same manner. There are three types of RNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) as well as this, each gene includes a particular nucleotide sequence that initiates and stops transcription. Each of which are involved in the intermediary process of transcribing and translating DNA into a protein (Hartl, 2011).
With the use of recombinant DNA essential products can be produced on a large scale in a short period of time i.e. human insulin for type two diabetics. As well as this there are various agricultural advantages, such as, the growth rate of some animals...

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...ely monitored. Taking all these points into consideration, the future of gene therapy has great potential (Cummings, 2003).

References:
Balazs, D. A. G. W., 2011. Liposomes for use in Gene Delivery. Journal of Drug Delivery, 2011(326497), p. 12.
Cummings, M. R. K. W. S., 2003. Concepts of Genetics. 7th ed. Chicago: Prentice Works.
Gan, C., 1989. Gene gun accelerates DNA coated paritcles to transform intact cells. The Scientist, 3(18), p. 25.
Hartl, D. L., 2011. Essential Genetics: A Genomics Perspective. Fifth edition ed. s.l.:Jones and Bartlett.
McCluskey, D. J., 2013. Genetic approaches to treating disease. Coleraine: Univeristy of Ulster.
Robbins, P. D. G. S. C., 1998. Viral vectors for gene therapy. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 80(1), pp. 35-47.
Sara Cormier, D. D. T. D. J. Z., 2009. Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board, California: McMaster University.

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