Allison Lore Mr. David R. Lopez ENG132 12/11/2013 Differentiating Instruction • Introduction One issue facing the quality of education in today`s schooling is Differentiating Instruction, which is simply to change ones teaching methods to help cater to each individual student’s needs. Teachers can differentiate through content, process, product, and learning environment based on the individuals. Differentiation comes from idea about differences among students, how students learn, learning preferences and individual interests. In order to understand how students learn and what they know, pre-assessment and ongoing assessments are necessary. In the past instruction was delivered in a one size fits all method.
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) argue that “learners were seen to have different needs and interest, which would have important influence on their motivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning.” The purposes of English course for students with specialist language have to be well-desig... ... middle of paper ... ...There are many definitions of ESP (English for Specific Purpose) that comes up from experts, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) assert that ESP is an approach which all determination as to content and method are based for the learner’s reason to learning. In the other words, it is defined by students’ different motivation to learn the language for vary purposes. While Richards (2000) describe that ESP learners typically study English to accomplish peculiar role that different from General English (GE) students that master the language to pass general exam. Richards’ point is that basically ESP and GE are two things that opposed each other because ESP seems has authentic language as Douglas (2000) explain that a crucial concept of language for specific purpose is authenticity.
When conducting research, one may decide to traditional research or action research. This paper will address the differences between action research and traditional research regarding their use in an educational environment, as well provide explanations and examples to delineate their uses in an education setting. Before action research, the traditional research was the main method of research conduct by schools. Traditional research finds are often generalizations about a concern or problem. This type of research is similar to the scientific method.
Classical traditional, liberal progressive and critical pedagogy are only some of the philosophies existent in our educational system. Each observes, studies and approaches the idea of schooling in a different way. While having some similarities in a sense that educating individuals in the society is the most important thing, they still significantly differ in their approaches to acquiring the necessary information and knowledge. The notion of a teacher, a student and methodology that pertains to each philosophy is distinct to each pedagogical idea. The further we learn and analyze other component elements of different philosophies, the more, as teachers and students, will we be able to make right choices and decisions when it comes to our own definition of education.
In action research, teachers become the researchers and “reflect about these problems, collect and analyze data, and implement changes based on their findings” (Creswell, 2008, p. 597). For educators it is often challenging to find studies applicable to their student population, setting, environment, and resources to mention a few yet with action research they are able to determine what works within their location. Although, active research focuses on the idea of taking action to address problems, two designs exist. While one approach known as the practical action research focuses primarily on the teachers and students, the second approach known as participatory action research focuses on bringing change to our society (Creswell, 2008). Therefore, as teachers become the researchers through research action design, they must determine whether the problem they seek to address requires changes at the school or district level or their community level.
The study was guided by the belief that educators may not possess a clear understanding of what differentiation is, that the key components for implementation, and the myths that surround the practice of differentiated instruction. In the article, Logan emphasized the contact between the teacher and learner and pointed out that, in the event of training, both the learner and trainer learn. He advocated for differentiated instruction in today’s learning environments, as students are found to be so diverse. In the process of implementing the differentiated instruction, the teacher must create learning profiles by analyzing the profile of every student. However, Logan pointed out that there are various clichés and barriers regarding differentiated instruction.
et al (1990:81). The fact that the curriculum is ¡¥a relatively fixed track or terrain (learning content) which must be covered (mastered) by the participant (learner) in order to reach the winning-post (learning result).¡¦ Based on this literal meaning, attempts to clarify what the curriculum is have led to the following definitions: „X A programme of study „X Course content „X Planned learning experiences „X Intended learning outcomes „X A plan for instruction According to Graham-Jolly, M. (2000:3), these definitions are narrow interpretations of the curriculum since ¡Kthe term is often used to refer to the formal academic programme provided by a school, as reflected in subjects on the timetable,,,it might also be used to refer to a particular course of instruction or syllabus. The focus here is, in the main, on didactic activities as they occur within the classroom situation. The latest trend, however, places emphasis on a broader and more inclusive interpretation of the concept, which takes into cognisance the social, political, economic and historical contexts within which the curriculum is designed, developed and implemented. Lubisi, C et al (... ... middle of paper ... ...dequately addressed in an essay of this nature.
The focus is on structuring lessons around big ideas or primary concepts which include a broad range of activities that promote hands-on learning. For example, problem solving, concept development, and construction of learner generated solutions would all be considered key components of the constructivist teaching method. On the other hand, traditional teaching methods consist of teacher-talk and textbook derived lessons. The emphasis is on curriculum proficiency and either right or wrong answers. The interviews we did illustrate the difference between the two teaching methods.
Introduction/Definition “The Integrated Curriculum Design or Subject Based Approach? You decide!” Educators are now at odds because of their view on which is the best practice approach to teaching young children. There are those that believe that teaching and learning should offer separate and distinct courses that are offered by the Subject Based Approach Curriculum. While others believe that teaching and learning, should involve the fusion of all the disciplines in the courses as offered by the Integrated Curriculum Design. Historically the education system was mainly of the teachings and learning, that focuses is on content or discipline that was being taught.
This plan would be most likely used by a new teacher or a long-term sub to a subject. This process lets the teacher take a lesson plan that was prepared by another teacher and use it to teach a topic to the class. While this might seem like an easy path to take there are some disadvantages to using this method. “Even when teachers work with prepared materials, they still have to clarify what they want students to learn, anticipate how students are likely to respond, and adapt teaching suggestions to fit their own situation” (Dorph & Feiman-Nemser, 1997). This means that the teacher still has to work on the lesson to make sure it is something that they can teach to their classes.