These supernovas were much dimmer than expected to be, and calculations proved that the stars were over ten billion light years away, much farther away than they should be had the universe been expanding at a slowing rate, or even a constant rate, as previously theorized (5). This discovery proved that the cosmos are not expanding at a slowing or a constant rate, but instead they are expanding at an accelerated rate (4). Since this discovery, scientists have been trying to uncover what it is that accounts for this accelerated expansion. Scientists have calculated the density of the cosmos, and they have also calculated the total mass of all visible galaxies. However, the galaxies make up less than one-third of the density needed to satisfy the current calculations of the early universe (2).
In 2013 a team of astronomers discovered a new planet eleven times more massive than Jupiter and 650 astronomical units from it’s star. It’s relatively new, only 13 million years old, and still glows from leftover heat from it’s formation. This planet defies many of the limitations scientists know about star and planet formation. It’s too far away from it’s star to have been formed by gathering asteroid-like bodies from the creation of the star or to be made of dust and gas clouds in the primordial disk. Astronomers also considered the idea that it might be a failed start formed during binary star formation however the mass ratio of the planet and it’s star is too different for that to be likely either.
For each billion pairs of these heavy particles (hardens) that were created, one was spared annihilation due to particle-antiparticle collisions. The remaining particles constitute the majority of our universe today (Novikov). During this creation and annihilation of particles the universe was undergoing a rate of expansion many times the speed of light. Known as the inflationary epoch, the universe in less than one thousandth of a second doubled in size at least one hundred times, from an atomic nucleus to 1035 meters in width. An isotropic inflation of our Universe ends at 10-35 second that was almost perfectly smooth.
They can be used to classify spirals since it’s a genuine difference between the galaxies. The spiral arms are thought to be density waves. As stars move through a spiral arm, gravitational force modifies the velo... ... middle of paper ... ... than half the stars found in the galaxy are older than four point five billion years old. The Milky Way is as old as the universe itself. There are probably more than one hundred billion galaxies.
Saturn is the 6th planet in order distance from the sun. It cannot approach the planet Earth closer than 1,190,000,000 kilometers. Its brightness is due to its large size. Saturn's equatorial diameter is 120,660 kilometers, but its globe is kind of flattened, and the polar diameter is only 108,000 kilometers. The mass of Saturn is 95.17 times that of the Earth, and the escape velocity, which is the velocity which once attained it will enable the object to "coast" away from the planet, is 32.26 kilometers per second, more than three times that of the Earth.
(“Supernova”) A supernova is an explosion of a massive supergiant star. It may shine with a brightness of 10 billion suns! The total energy output may be 10^44 joules, as much as the total output of the sun during its 10 billion year lifetime. The likely scenario is fusion proceeds to build up a core of iron. The “iron group” of elements around mass number A=60 are the most tightly bound nuclei, so no more energy can be gotten from nuclear fusion.
Super massive black holes are enormous black holes which have a mass equivalent to large numbers of solar masses. A black hole is called a super massive black hole when a normal "galactic nuclei black hole" has a mass range between 0.1 million to 10 million solar masses. (Cardiff University 2014). It is believed that one solar mass is equal the mass of the sun, so that would make a super-massive black hole very large compared to the sun. Super-massive black holes having a large mass would make its gravity incredibly limitless, this would mean that even a star which is many light years away would be impelled by the super-massive black hole.
Introduction Definition: Black holes are rapidly spinning stellar bodies of incredible mass. A typical black hole has a mass many times that of our own sun , but the size approaches point density. For all intents and purposes, black holes are singularities, a fact that many physicists find contradictory, since in general the universe abhors a singularity. They are formed when a large sun exhausts its fuel and collapses to a very small volume. Of course, conservation of angular momentum and mass hold true, so as the star shrinks, it rotates faster and faster, and its density becomes greater and greater.
Understanding Black Holes A Black hole is a theorized celestial body whose surface gravity is so strong that nothing, including light, can escape from within it's surface. Gravity is the key to a black hole's immense power. The black hole's strong gravity keeps captured material from escaping. For example, if Earth were the same mass it is now but had only one-fourth its present radius, the escape velocity of someone standing on its surface would be twice what it is now. Black holes have a power far greater than our minds can imagine.
His argument wasn’t concluded until 1925 when Edwin Hubble identified a special kind of star known as a Cepheid variable. A Cepheid variable is a star whose characteristics allow for exact measurements of distance within Andromeda. Since Shapley had previously determined that the Milky Way was only 100,000 light-years across, Edwin Hubble’s calculations reported that the fuzzy patches were too far away to lay within the Milky Way Galaxy. (www.crystalinks.com 1) In conclusion, the Andromeda Galaxy is a very important galaxy because it effects other galaxys, like the Milky Way Galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy is coming closer and closer towards the Milky Way Galaxy every second and in the future will collide into one galaxy.