The Periodic Table is based around the Atomic Theory. Firstly people believed that everything was made up the four elements Earth, Fire, Wind, and Water. This theory evolved into everything being made up of atoms. Breakthroughs throughout history such as the discoveries of the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons have pushed this theory forward to where it is today.
There we many theories on what atoms where and what they looked like. There have been many theories in the past. The theories started with “All matter was made of tiny, solid unbreakable particles.” And eventually ended with “An atom consists of neutrons and protons in the nucleus, with electrons surrounding it”.
In back in the times of Ancient Greece in the year of 460 B.C., Democritus & Leucippus proposed that everything in the world was made up of atoms. He also proposed that atoms were indestructible, there were an infinite number of them and between them there is empty space. Democritus formed views on the atomic structure, such as its shapes and connectivity. Democritus also claimed that atoms were of different sizes, but was unsure of the weight of atoms. Democritus’ discovery of the atom is the basis of elements, which is the basis of the periodic table. Without the discovery of the atom, the periodic table would never exist.
The understanding that matter was composed of atoms was changed with the discovery of smaller particles than the atoms, which are protons, neutrons, and electrons. But during the 1960’s, the multitude of particles being discovered was making the understanding that matter is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons, insufficient. Murray Ge...
Things are very different from each other, and can be broken down into small groups inside itself, which was then noticed early by people, and Greek thinkers, about 400BC. Which just happened to use words like "element', and `atom' to describe the many different parts and even the smallest parts of matter. These ideas were around for over 2000 years while ideas such as `Elements' of Earth, Fire, Air, and Water to explain `world stuff' came and went. Much later, Boyle, an experimenter like Galileo and Bacon, was influenced much by Democritus, Gassendi, and Descartes, which lent much important weight to the atomic theory of matter in the 1600s. Although it was Lavoisier who had divided the very few elements known in the 1700's into four different classes, and then John Dalton made atoms even more believable, telling everyone that the mass of an atom was it's most important property. Then in the early 1800's Dobereiner noted that the similar elements often had relative atomic masses, and DeChancourtois made a cylindrical table of elements to display the periodic reoccurrence of properties. Cannizaro then determined atomic weights for the 60 or so elements known in the 1860s, and then a table was arranged by Newlands, with the many elements given a serial number in order of their atomic weights, of course beginning with Hydrogen. That made it clear that "the eighth element, starting from a given one, is a kind of a repeat of the first", which Newlands called the Law of Octaves.
Attempts to organize the elements began in the late 1800’s. At this time, about sixty elements were known. Much advancement would have been impossible if the basic model of the atom was discovered. Great progress came from Dmitri Medeleev – a Russian chemist. His first draft of a periodic table was only the product of him attempting to summarize his knowledge of the elements. Although not all of Medeleev’s ideas were one-hundred percent accurate, they created a solid base to build upon. Marie and Pierre Curie; a married couple from Paris were successors of Medeleev. Their interests were radioactivity and discovered radium. The true pioneers of the periodic table were Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick. Rutherford formed the hypothesis that, “An atom must have a concentrated positive center charge that contains most of the atom’s mass.” Following Rutherford, Chadwick exposed a segment of the nucleus that was had no charge: the neutron. With the basic knowledge of the structure of an atom, the tedious work of putting the rest of the puzzle together continued.
Throughout the history of science, investigations of physical objects have shown them to be divisible into portions of ever decreasing size. Biologists discovered that living organisms are made up of cells. They then discovered that cells contain organelles. Through the years the finally came to the finding that atoms are the final building blocks of living creatures. Chemists and physicists discovered that all matter is composed of atoms. Atoms, in turn, were shown to be composed of a positively charged nucleus and a negatively charged shell. The nucleus was then shown to be made of protons and neutrons. The negatively charged shell was shown to be composed of electrons. These small, seemingly indivisible, particles were more recently discovered to be composed of even smaller particles, quarks and leptons. These newly discovered particles each have many varieties, or "flavors." Along with these tiny bits of matter are other particles as well: photons, muons, mesons, bosons, gluons, etc... Even these specks have subtypes and varieties. As if this wasn't enough, quarks and leptons are suspected to have even smaller components. "Where does it all end?" an exasperated reader might ask. Most physicists will admit that they don't ...
Atomic science began many centuries ago with ancient philosophers and alchemists experimenting and probing into the nature and structure of matter. Science began emerging when Thales of Miletus, the Ioian Greek in (634-546 BC) described the power of attraction in electricity long before electricity was known. In (460-370 BC) a Greek philosopher named Demoncritus was called the “father of the atom”. Although he had no experimental evidence to support himself, Demoncritus argued that all matter must consist of a number of fundamental pieces. He called these pieces “atoms” from the Greek word “atomon” which means indivisible. In (79 BC), the Roman poet-philosopher Titus Lucretius developed atomic theory. After the fall of the Roman Empire and
Atomism originated in the school of Leucippus, which was located in Abdera, Thrace, by none other than Leucippus himself. However, the biggest flag bearer for this particular philosophy was Democritus, a student who was taught directly by Leucippus, who worked closely with Leucippus on the theories behind atomism. Democritus took the workings of his teacher and popularizing them, taking the ideas of atomism and put them into the philosophical sphere to be picked over by other great minds such as Plato and his followers,, and many others throughout the ages. The two basic ideas of atomism are the atom, a word which comes from the Greek word “atomos” meaning uncuttable. All atoms are uniform in size and form with no fluctuating properties. The second tenant of atomism is known as the void which, as the name suggests, is the lack of any matter and is the emptiness that atoms interact within. These two ideas are the foundations for atomistic ideas that were then expanded upon with each philosopher adding there own take on how atoms interacted with each other and with macroscopic beings. Through out its existence atomism led to much more than a debate on the composition of the universe. Atomism also led to discussions on how people and the universe interact on a daily basis and how that interaction affected a person’s life by showing the role of the atom in everything from taste of our food to the color of our shirt these were all explained with atoms. Atomism was even woven into debates such as the reality of reality and the legitimacy of knowledge.
In 1803 this theory was finalised and stated that (1) all matter is made up of the smallest possible particles termed atoms, (2) atoms of a given element have unique characteristics and weight, and (3) three types of atoms exist: simple (elements), compound (simple molecules), and complex (complex molecules).