Culture And Entrepreneurship: Literature Review Of Culture And Entrepreneurship

1790 Words8 Pages
I. Introduction
II. Literature review of culture and entrepreneurship
2.1. The theory of culture
The conception of “culture” is complicated and it is defined in different way. The meaning of culture that Victor Barnouw expressed in his book “Culture and personality” is as follows “A culture is the way of life of a group of people, the complex of shared concepts and patterns of learned behavior that are handed down from one generation to the next through the means of language and imitation” (Barnouw, 1985). Meanwhile, Kroeber and Talcott Parsons suggested that culture is described as “transmitted and created content and patterns of values, ideas, and other symbolic-meaningful systems as factors in the shaping of human behavior and the artifacts
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For instance, when you were a litter boy, you learned basic behavior from your family including parents, sisters, brothers or grandparents. When you entered to school, then, your teacher will instruct knowledge to you. After graduation and having specific occupation, you can enhance your experience and awareness via your colleagues or managers. Interestingly, similar situation will occur with your children, which means this cycle never end and repeat again in next generation. Depending on characteristic of each society such as regional, religious, language and national there is different kind of culture; but the fact remains that you cannot evade culture, your children also cannot and no one escape culture. Using the result of empirical research which is based on HERMES data bank with 65 countries including U.S and 117,000 questionnaires, Hofstede devised four dimension of national culture, such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. His cultural dimension have considered as a crucial component in most research about the influences of culture on entrepreneurship, organizations or business…show more content…
Hofstede and his colleagues argued that “A society is called masculine when emotional gender roles are clearly distinct: men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success, whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life” and “A society is called feminine when emotional gender roles overlap: both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender , and concerned with the quality of life” (Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov, 2010). That is clear that in masculine society, the curial element of achievement is assertion, the effort in reaching opportunity for high earnings or advancement to higher job position. Meanwhile, in femininity, the modesty is the main characteristic and the relationship in society is the caring to others and peaceful
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