Critical Thinking Theory

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The classic forms of social criticism were developed and applied in practice, even in ancient philosophy by Xenophanes, Socrates, Plato and the Cynics. The interest in critical thinking has never waned in the social and political thought, but social criticism reached true prosperity in the Enlightenment. Voltaire and Rousseau, Montesquieu and Locke, Hume, and Kant saw the most important means of formation of free and responsible citizens, harmonious and creative personality in a critical attitude towards the institutions and values. A new wave of criticism of social philosophy, implemented in classical forms, is associated with the names of the supporters of the revolutionary transformation of society. First of all, there may be mentioned the names of Marx, Bakunin, and Proudhon (Lavery, Hughes, & Doran, 2009).
In general, as shown by analysis of the literature, there are three stages of critical thinking research. The first stage was within 1970-1982. During this period, researchers paid their attention to the importance of logical thinking, believing that it formed the core of critical thinking (Reichenbach, 2000). E. Glaser developed training program of critical thinking, which addressed
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It is a source of education and a powerful resource in the life of every individual and in social life. Despite the fact that the identification and analysis of critical thinking skills are beyond the boundaries of a single discipline or subject, the learning and application of these skills require possession of certain knowledge. The value of critical thinking is lost if it is treated as a list of logical operations, and the possession of certain knowledge is regarded simply as a collection of information. The investigation of the relationship of a value judgment and the actual use may lead to a new assessment of the need for common concepts of critical thinking and the possession of certain knowledge in education (Paul,
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