Scott’s work in this essay focuses on the development of universal individual rights around the eighteenth and nineteenth century of French history. The individual was
Throughout France in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries majority of the population consisted of peasants who lived in rural areas across an estimated thirty thousand different villages. The lives of these peasants consisted of hard physical labour that usually took place on farms that they rented from a seigneur . “Life was a struggle to grow enough to feed families and meet obligations. Crop yields were relatively low, and the average villager did not own enough land to live comfortably on what it could produce” . This paper will cover peasant revolts in France during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as their suppressions. Two different kinds of revolts will be looked at, tax revolts and religious revolts. The two kinds of revolts will then be compared and analysed.
King Louis nation had a massive reaction focused on the King’s plight and return. The Reaction was not only seen in Paris alone but also on the other provinces, where a widespread phobia caused by foreign invasion led to the utter news of the King’s escape. Nevertheless, Tackett identifies the royal family plight to flee France as one of the most critical moments in the history of the French revolution. The king’s flight opens a window to the whole of the French society during the revolution. The purpose of the Kings flight was to offer freedom of action in terms of power and this was in regards to the King’s power and rule. The royal couple together with their advisers had unclear political agenda for their nation. Similarly, it is in the vent of these unclear goals factored by the Kind’s technical knowhow of not making decisive decisions that led to the stoppage of the royal family at Varennes and thereafter their return to Paris. The consequence of their return to Paris was the onset of the constant possibility of the end of the Monarch reign. On the same case, it is as a result of the royal family escape attempt and failure necessitated the integrity of the King as a constitutional monarch. On a much more political notion, The King’s hope of survival is mitigated
Louis XIV, the representation of supreme sovereign in the 17th century, built a flourishing empire, but rather momentary one. His title, “the Sun King,” evidenced his superiority over his men and country. This most dominative monarchy in the Bourbon Dynasty’s achievement was invaluable, including the expansion of French territories, the centralization of religion, and the completion of the Versailles. Considering rights, Louis was the loyalist supporter of absolutism, a belief that he should be responsible to no one but the God, which can be found in his words: “L’État — c’ est moi” (I am the State!). No doubt, all rights were handled by him, from the highest court to the basic supply purveyance. However, did this style of centralization of authority proved worthy for the majority, or the peasants who consisted more than 80% of the population? If a thorough description was taken, it would be simple to recognize the heavy duties the lower classes burden. “…the peasants own less than half of the land and frequently starve…It is one of the ironies of French Agriculture that the peasants often grew insufficient grain to feed their own family and was force to buy bread out of their earnings.”(Ashley 75) How difficult ...
The American, French, and Latin Revolutions have one common denominator, freedom. This freedom to express independent values and rules led to the movement for self-rule politically, economically, and socially. Within this paper, it will be shown who, what, where, why and how the three revolutions evolved, and how they effected the world.
At the beginning of the 17th century, France was a place of internal strife and bickering bureaucrats. The king, Louis XIII, had come to the throne in 1610 at the age of nine, leaving the running of the kingdom to his mother, Marie de Medici. One of her court favorites, Armand de Plessis de Richelieu, rose through the ranks, eventually gaining the title of Cardinal and becoming one of Louis’ key advisors and minister. His political manifesto, Political Testament, was a treatise for King Louis XIII that offered him advice mainly concerned with the management and subtle subjugation of the nobles and the behavior of a prince. Beneath all of the obeisant rhetoric, Richelieu was essentially writing a handbook for Louis XIII on how to survive as a king in a political landscape increasingly dominated by the aristocracy. Richelieu’s ideology shows a pragmatic attitude reminiscent of The Prince, a political work by 15th century Florentine politician Niccoló Machiavelli.
Absolutism was a political theory that encouraged rulers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to establish complete sovereignty within their territories. A ruler with complete sovereignty had the jurisdiction to make laws, enforce justice, create and direct bureaucracy, declare war, and levy taxation without formal approval from any other governing authorities. One of the most threatening opponents to the royal absolutist were the nobles, who played a significant role in the success or the demise of the countries. A series of absolutist rulers in England, France, and Russia rose to power in various ways: some met with success while others fell short. I plan to discuss how absolutists commanded armed forces of the state, controlled its legal system, and how the spending of the state’s resources will lead to the construction of a healthy nation or lead to drastic reforms.
Amidst the hectic French Revolution, a groundbreaking politician named Robespierre surfaced and drove an entire nation into what would be the darkest, bloodiest stage of its history. Known as the Reign of Terror, this time period established how far a society could go for what they considered to be their birthrights. Numerous deaths, many of them brought upon by the infamous guillotine, guaranteed that the entire country was on the same revolutionary path. Some might say that violence is never justifiable; however, there was no other way for change to happen. The Reign of Terror was an understandable method to silence foreign threats; dissipate local counterrevolutionaries; and thus emphasize the cherished ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in the forthcoming democracy.
Beginning in the 1700’s, nationalism emerged by means of affairs during the French Revolution, and stimulated pride within the French citizens. In the 1848 Proclamation of the Second French Republic (Doc 1), a statement is made addressing the abolition of all royalty in France and declaring the new form of government as a Republic, while also claiming to take all actions in order to prevent the formation of a new monarchy. Nationalism was evident in the people of France as a result to their greater voice and increased independence. In the eyes of the French, the proclamation was symbolic for liberty, comradeship, and equality. Without doubt, it can be assumed that the French citizens came together on account of the proclamation, which gave them a sense of dignity and concord in their country France. Jules Ferry expressed that the high superiority of France was above all other nations (Doc 8). Ferry imposed the ideal that there was a right given to those of superior races, as well as a responsibility to civilize those of substandard races. Therefore he w...
3. Mettam, R 1988, Power and Faction in Louis XVI's France, T.J. Press, Oxford, Great Britain.