Congress of Vienna (1815)

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Congress of Vienna (1815)
In September 1814 – June 1815, the leaders who vanquished Napoleon, European representatives, and those who believe they were in “high circles” gathered together to redraw territorial boundaries and fashion a lasting peace at the end of the Napoleonic wars after the downfall of Napoleon.
 Dominated by four major victors – Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria set peace term with France in April.
 signing a crucial document
 legitimacy (territories should once more be placed under the control of the old ruling houses of the traditional order), and stability (balance power in Europe)
 light penalty for France and restore it to 1789 boundaries and required France to pay.
 abolish slave trade
 the Holy alliance was formed to secure the Vienna settlement

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
In 1904, the Russian angered Japan by increasing it’s presence in China’s Northern Province of Manchuria. Eventually, the Japanese decided to attack the Russian to keep their power on the Asian Mainland and surprisingly, defeated them both on land and at sea. Eventually, Japanese became the dominant power in Manchuria.

Second Reform Act (1867)
 Caused by the people who are tired and want to gain to the political system
 tired of the British government who sympathize with movement for national liberation abroad and parade British naval, and national pride.
 started by the Conservative Party, under Benjamin Disraeli, demand for democratic reform
 they passed the Reform Bill of 1867
 doubled the electorate and gave the vote to the lower-middle class for the first time
 gathered support from the working class by passing laws that limited working hours, established sanitary codes, created housing standards, and aided labor union.

Alfred Dreyfus (1894)
In 1894, A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of betrayal and sent to solitary imprisonment on Devil’s Island in South America.
 France people followed the news from time to time
 3 years later, the proof of his innocence appeared. Yet, the high-ranking officers refused to open the cased.
 Eventually, it divided the nation into two (Left and Right)
 Republican, socialist, and intellectuals under Zola rallied for Drefus.
Nationalist, conservative, monarchist, and anti-Semitic force supported the Army
 in 1899, a second court-martial again convicted Dreyfus for evidence of another’s officer’s guilt.
 The Republic pardoned him, but it took seven years to get his name fully acquainted
 marked the battle over anti-semitism, but the victory became a victory for republicanism and anti-clericalism.  made them strong enough to separate church with state.

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