Commercial Uses of Enzymes

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Commercial Uses of Enzymes The use of enzymes to modify foods has increased vastly and these fermentations are continuing to be important, however, a new type of enzyme industry has evolved which involves the use of harvesting enzymes from microorganisms. The production of enzymes from bacteria and fungi can be isolated from the growth media and cleansed and purified as necessary. Generally in industrial processes the enzyme is immobilised which allows t h enzyme to be re-used and also enable the products to be separated easily. The production of textiles, paper, leather fruit juices and biological detergents are produced from Microbial enzymes. ====================================================================== Enzymes work by breaking down a substrate into simpler molecules. They increase the rate at which a reaction occurs. They lower the activation energy, which results in a quicker rate. Once the substrate leaves the active site of the enzyme the enzyme is free to combine with another free substrate molecule as long as it will fit into the active site of the enzyme as each enzyme has a specific active site which results in enzymes being specific in what they break down. The following equation represents the reaction occurring between an enzyme and a substrate: ENZYME + SUBSTRATE à ENZYME – SUBSTRATE complex à ENZYME + PRODUCTS [IMAGE] Proteases --------- Proteases hydrolyse peptide bonds in peptides and proteins. They act wither within the peptide chain or by removing amino acid residues in sequence from one or other end of the chain. Proteases can also be known as proteinases and pe... ... middle of paper ... ...otein stains when washing clothes. The proteases present in biological powders include Savinase and Alcalase. They are produce by microorganisms. Proteins help to remove stains like blood, grass and various foods by breaking the proteins down present in these substances. The products produced dissolve in the water. Enzyme immobilisation Enzymes used commercially are often immobilised. This is when the enzyme molecules are attached to an insoluble material however this does not affect the enzymes activity. This is good as the products are easy to separate from the enzyme so the enzyme can then be re-used which also reduces costs. Enzyme immobilisation is used a lot in the production of milk for lactose intolerant people. Immobilised lactase hydrolyses the milk sugar lactose to produce glucose and galactose.
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