Chronic Wasting Disease is a highly transmissible, deadly neurodegenerative disease that affects cervids in North America (Belay et al., 2004; Saunders et al., 2012). There are only four types of cervid that are known to get this disease which include elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and moose (Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance). It has been classified has a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), otherwise known as a prion disease (Belay et al., 2004). A prion is an irregular, pathogenic agent that causes abnormal folding of specific proteins called prion proteins. These proteins are mostly located in the brain (Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance).
These high risk substances come from the brains and spinal cords of cattle that are at least 30 months of age or older. Since the feed ban in 1988 the amount of reported cases has significantly dropped. In 1998, it came down to 1,567 reported cases. Last year, 4,454 new cases had been reported, compared to 37,301 new cases at the peak of the BSE disease in 1992. BSE can eventually be eradicated if there is no other significant source of infection (6).
Figure Two There are several ways to tell of a cow is infected with BSE. An adult cow may take from two to eight years to first show signs of being infected but others can take a short time. The symptoms for infected cows are “anxiety, nervousness, and initial hyperactivity followed by lethargy” (Ratzan 10). Also cows experience pain in their horns, horn sockets and ears when they are infected.
There was strong laboratory evidence between the BSE outbreak in cattle and a human prion disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) that was first reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1996. The disease is caused by eating beef products contaminated with central nervous system tissue from cattle infected with Mad Cow Disease. It can affect all age groups and is very hard to diagnose until it has nearly run its course. VCJD is fatal, usually within 13 months of the onset of symptoms (The Basics of Mad Cow Disease). The impact Mad Cow Disease and vCJD had in the United Kingdom caused fear worldwide and resulted in major changes to be implemented in the cattle industry.
This is called antigenic "shift.” It isn’t as s... ... middle of paper ... ...uenza vaccines, since the vaccine is prepared from influenza grown in eggs. The most common side effect is mild soreness at the injection site. Serious side effects such as such as life-threatening allergic reactions or Guilain-Barre syndrome are rare (fewer than 1to 2 cases per million vaccine recipients). Although the virus will continue to change and we will continue to try to defeat it, we never will. Just in the past three years two new strains have been discovered but were isolated and wiped out quickly.
Starvation and disease can be tragic, but that nature’s ways of ensuring that healthy, strong animals survive” (Peta). Meanwhile in Missouri white tail deer are starting to show up with a new disease known as chronic wasting disease or also known as CWD for short. This particular disease infects not only Missouri’s white tailed deer but elk as well. Missouri Department of Conservation wrote this about it “CWD is caused by an abnormal protein, called a prion. The disease causes degeneration of brain tissue, which slowly leads to death” (MDC).
Although, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Saskatewan have found cases of CWD in their state's wild deer herds. CWD is a brain and nervous system disease that is very fatal, and occurs in deer and elk. It is very similar to Mad Cow Disease becaus... ... middle of paper ... ...rch 16, 2004, from Chronic Wasting Disease: Moving on: http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/WYcwdarticle.pdf Madson, C. "CWD's impact on deer herds". Retrieved March 16, 2004, from Chronic Wasting Disease: Moving on: http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/WYcwdarticle.pdf Meredith, T. "Managing CWD". Retrieved March 16, 2004, from Chronic Wasting Disease: Moving on: http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/WYcwdarticle.pdf Meredith, T. "New research".
There is a 90% accuracy rate in mares that were given the booster in the same year compared to 78% accuracy in mares that only received one vaccination. (Turner et al. 2002). Although the vaccine has a high accuracy rate, immunocontraception through the PZP vaccine can take time to provide visible results, and is not a rapid method of population control. The PZP vaccine does slow reproduction, but it still takes times to change the population percentage as animals still have to die from natural causes... ... middle of paper ... ... JS Adelman 2010.
(CNN) In 1997, there was an award given to Stanley Prusiner, for concluding that a distorted protein called a prion was responsible for Mad Cow Disease, noted the long incubation period made it difficult to distinguish (Bryant). Another name for Mad Cow Disease is the new variant Cruetzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), similar to the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, which is a deadly brain illness that strikes about one per million per year (USDA) due to genetic or unknown causes while the vCJD is contracted from eating infected cows (USDA). Both CJD and vCJD are so similarly named because of the similar effects from the illness. This case study shows the effect of CJD. The story has been said to be on the natural occurring CJD but is still in the family with the same kind of effects as vCJD.
In some parts of the United States, there were none. In 1886, the US Supreme Court forced hunters to get licenses and follow certain restrictions. Conservationists urged hunters kill bucks instead of does. Because of these precautions, by the 1940s, 30 states in the United States had deer herds large enough to starve themselves (4). Populations of the white-tailed deer have increased in great numbers.