Cholera Symptoms, Causes, Vaccine, Treatment and History

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Produced by the bacteria, vibrio cholerae that creates a toxin that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine, Cholera is an infectious disease. The majority of the bacteria is wiped out by gastric acid when ingested, while the surviving bacteria settle in the small intestine and begin making the toxin that produces the symptoms of Cholera. The toxin created by the bacteria, Vibrio Cholerae, is a exotoxin. Vibrio Cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family of curved gram-negative rods. They are found in coastal waters and estuaries, and tend to grow best in the company of salt. However, they can develope in lower salinity when it is warmer and contains sufficient organic materials. (Harris, LaRocque, Qadri, Ryan, Calderwood/ 2012) Origin Cholera was primitively native to the Indian subcontinent primarily around the Ganges river. The trade routes spread the disease to Russia, and then to Western Europe. During the Irish immigration period it was spread to North America. Cholera is no longer considered a critical health threat in North America and Europe due to filtering and chlorination of water supplies.However, it still affects developing countries and especially the children inhabiting them. (Balakrishnan/ 2008) History Filippo Pacini It was believed that cholera was caused by an exorbitant production of bile by the patient before the study of bacteria gained importance and before microorganisms were linked to infectious diseases. In the 1800s this explanation was no longer adequate,and scientists started to look for new answers. In the 19th century, around the time a cholera pandemic was devastating Asia, the disease arrived in Italy. Pacini started performing autopsies on the bodies of victims intransigent... ... middle of paper ... ...013, from http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/travel/diseases/cholera.htm Normandin, B. (2012, June 4). Cholera.Healthlines RSS News. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://www.healthline.com/health/cholera Harris, J., LaRocque, R., Ryan, E., Qadri, F., & Calderwood, S. (2012, June 30). Cholera. Pubmed. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3761070/ Balakrishnan, A. (2008, December 4). Cholera Q&A. theguardian.com. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/dec/04/cholera-zimbabwe Arnold, P. (2009, September 27). History of Cholera - Who Discovered Cholera?.Bright Hub. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/50412.aspx Handa, S. (2013, November 11). Cholera . Cholera. Retrieved December 17, 2013, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/962643-overview

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