According to Anzaldua, “ Chicano Spanish is considered by the purist and by most Latinos deficient, a mutilation of Spanish”(Anzaldua 32). The Chicano Spanish versus Spanish conflict that occurs in Latino society is a prime example of people considering themselves to be right in a situation where there is not a right answer. The Latino’s who speak Spanish that they believe to be normal are disturbed by the Spanish language changing. They believe that their own views are being challenged, they believe that they are correct, and they believe that anyone who challenges their views is inferior. The people who view all other views are, in reality, just trying to make themselves look more powerful. Like in Tan’s essay, people demeaned others in order to promote their own views, therefore, gaining power over the others who they demeaned. According to Tan, “ She said they would not give her any more information(...) And when the doctor finally called her daughter, me, who spoke in perfect english-- lo and behold-- we had assurances the CAT scan would be found”(Tan 2). The doctors treated Tan’s mother differently due to her use of what they considered “broken language”, leading to her being treated inadequately. People have an image of what they consider to be the right English, anyone who does not speak the right English is usually considered to be uneducated. In both Tan’s and Anzaldua’s essays, the lack of open-mindedness is one of the reasons that people want to become more powerful than others. People fail to realize that what they believe in is not always the right answer, like with stereotypes, the people are trying to gain power over others in order to make themselves seem more
In attempting to discuss the history of Chicanos, or Mexican-Americans and their experiences in the United States, an economic analysis may provide the best interpretation for their failure to achieve the status of first class citizens. This difficulty in achieving equality of citizenship is deeply rooted in both the economic self-interest of the Anglo-Americans, as well as their inherent perception of Otherness in Chicanos. This paper will explain the importance of this history and its context in the American framework. Beginning with the Chicano experience of the precolonial period and continuing through the Mexican-American war, analyzing particularly the Mercantilist policy which guided the colonization, alongside the principles of self-interest which carried many Anglos to Texas resulting in the war. Following, will be a close study of the period between the signing of the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo and the Second World War which was strongly defined by the Anglo capitalist industrialization of the early 20th century, and its subsequent effect on the development of the Chicano condition. It will then culminate with the Chicano resistance movements starting after the Second World War to the present with emphasis on such events as the Grape Strike of Cesar Chavez in 1968 which brought national recognition to the Chicano situation largely through economic means. In light of the satirical revisionist comedies of Teatro Campesino, "Los Vendidos" a short play by Luis Valdez will bring a conclusive view of the experience the Mexican-Americans endured according to one of their own.
This quote, taken from the play Los Vendidos by Luis Valdez, well illustrates the ambivalence and hypocrisy Anglos have projected towards Mexicans for the last two centuries. Specifically, this quote refers to the United States government needing a "brown face" in the crowd at one of their meetings to showcase their supposed support and inclusion of Mexican-Americans in the U.S. However, it is more important that the "brown face" act American, or embody Anglo characteristics deemed to be more reputable and civilized. Valdez’s play showcases an important theme in Mexican-American history and still today which, as the title implies, is that Mexicans and Mexican Americans have been forced to sell, or disregard their culture, language, and ideals for Anglocized ones in order to become citizens of the United States. Moreoever, their presence in history has been romanticized or has gone unnoticed by American citizens. By examining the characters and dialogue in Valdez’s work Los Vendidos, along with complementary written and oral historical accounts, I will first describe the stereotypes and racism Mexican-Americans have endured both historically and presently. Secondly, I will detail how the Chicano’s struggle for equal rights in education, workforce, and politics, has been thwarted by the Anglo Americans’ desire to "mold" or "control" Chicano’s destiny in the United States and maintain them as second-class citizens. Finally, I will argue that even those of Mexican descent that have attempted to assimilate themselves into American culture still face an insurmountable task due to the racism that clouds the cultural len...
...s/06/10mexico.borderdeaths.ap/ Cornelius, W., Philip, M., James, H., (1994). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective. Stanford University Press Divine R. et al, (1999). America Past and Present. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Griswold del Castillo, R. (1990). The Treaty of Guadalupe - Hidalgo. University of Oklahoma Press Ferrying dreamers to the other side. (1998) Harper's, 1781 (297) p.22-26 Herzog, L. (1990). Where North Meets South. Austin Center for Mexican American Studies. University of Texas at Austin Low Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home. (1992). University of Texas at Austin Press Martinez, O. (1995). Troublesome Border. Tucson. University of Arizona Press The Bracero Program, Immigration, and the INS. (1996). New York and London. Routledge U.S. Border Patrol [Online] U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Available http://www.usbp.com
The author’s purpose for writing this book is to have the audience understand what being an American really means. To be an American is not synonymous to the stereotypical white family with a picket-fence. To be an American is to simply identify yourself with the United States; to call America your home. Most Americans are originally from all around the word with different experiences and cultures, but they came to the new world to start a new life. Unfortunately, we seem to forget that fact and judge those who come here to do the same that thing our ancestors did many years ago. Adolfo Angelino is a good example of this prejudice from the book. He is the manager of the small apartment building many struggling Americans call home. Adolfo has been treated like many new Americans; told to go back to where he came from, wherever that may be, but he says, “If people want to tell me to go home, I just turn to them and smile politely and say, ‘I’m already there’” (Henríquez 146).
The Latino Threat Narrative has excluded Latinx from the sense of national belonging of the United States. Nation is a product of nationalism, which is “an imagined political community– and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign. It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” (Anderson, 6). In other words, nationalism is a socially, psychologically, and politically constructed community created and imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that community. It is social and psychological process that makes people believe they are connected to one another and share ties. However, nationalism is limited and exclusive, not everyone has the privilege of being part of that community. For instance, “the nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of them, encompassing perhaps a billion living human beings, has finite, if elastic, boundaries beyond which lie other nations”(Anderson, 7). In other words, nationalism divides communities and creates restrictions and prohibitions that are similar to immigration laws. The hegemony of American nationalism include people who are only of European descent, born in the United States and speaks only English. Particularly, Gonzalez due to her illegal status she was not welcome to be part of the American nationalism. Therefore, she was forced out and excluded from the American narrative. In this case, nationalism is a form of oppression against marginalized groups. Nationalism divides those who do not fit in the status quo. As a result, the idea of nationalism divides vulnerable communities from entering the narrative. Thus, the American patriarchal form of nationalism transforms into American Exceptionalism in which the United States brands
U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder said in a statement, "Setting immigration policy and enforcing immigration laws is a national responsibility," His department added that Arizona’s state law hampered the authority of the Obama administration to enforce national immigration policy and usurps federal authority to protect U.S. bo...
Preston, J. (2011, June 6). Immigration program is rejected by third state. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/us/politics/07immig.html?_r=1
Latinos who were raised in the United States of America have a dual identity. They were influenced by both their parents' ancestry and culture in addition to the American culture in which they live. Growing up in between two very different cultures creates a great problem, because they cannot identify completely with either culture and are also caught between the Spanish and English languages. Further more they struggle to connect with their roots. The duality in Latino identity and their search for their own personal identity is strongly represented in their writing. The following is a quote that expresses this idea in the words of Lucha Corpi, a Latina writer: "We Chicanos are like the abandoned children of divorced cultures. We are forever longing to be loved by an absent neglectful parent - Mexico - and also to be truly accepted by the other parent - the United States. We want bicultural harmony. We need it to survive. We struggle to achieve it. That struggle keeps us alive" ( Griwold ).
The Huffington Post. “Arizona Immigration Law Sparks National Uproar.” The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/20/arizona-immigration-law-s_n_544864.html (June 20, 2010).
Internalized racism has hit the individual level where half of all Hispanics consider themselves as white. One Mexican American asserted that he felt “shame and sexual inferiority…because of my dark complexion.” He also described himself with “disgust” loathing his appearance when he sees himself in the mirror. Stereotypes play a huge role in the Latino culture in the U.S where often the usual stereotype is that Latinos are job-stealers, uneducated, poor and illegal. “Envidia” or jealousy sabotages the Latino community because Latinos begin to question the qualifications of other successful Latinos. No one has the positive thought that Latinos can achieve and triumph in any field; they just can’t believe that. Latinos just stamp other Latinos with those stereotypes Americans say. Because of internalized racism, Latinos and Hispanics distance themselves from the Spanish language to support the English only movement. They are embarrassed of their inherited language and rather choose English to complete assimilation. “Almost 40% of Latino/a respondents prefer English as their dominant language…” (Padilla 20). Where I currently live, I always see on the day to day basis Hispanics and Latinos that immigrated to the United States from other countries sounding “white.” I speak to Hispanics; even Latinos in Spanish and they respond
...abriel Medina. "Some Mexican immigrants experience discrimination at the hands of their fellow citizens." Nebraska mosaic. Nebraska School of Journalism, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.
Jimmy Santiago Baca’s poem sends out a powerful message without the use of a strict structure. The modest wording and simple structure helps the writer send his message across. In addition, with the use of imagery, symbolism, diction, and tone, Baca is able to argue and ridicule American stereotypes on Mexican immigrants coming to the country and robbing them of job opportunities. The use of figurative language helps support Baca’s point of view on how the American misconception is irrational and prejudice.
The Chicano history is a history of transformation based on conquest and struggle under a racial hierarchy. The Anglo-Americans’ intentions of creation of this racial foundation and segregating culture was to justify their act of assigning socio-economic functions to Mexican-Americans, limiting them to a cycle of exploitation and poverty. The meaning behind the contradiction of double aims was identified in El Plan de Santa Barbara’s manifesto and Menchaca’s Recovering History, which emphasized the neglect and distortion of Mexican-American history as a political act by Anglo-Americans to generate a negative, inferior image of these minorities, in comparison to their progressive “American” culture. This ultimately kept the two cultures unreconciled,