Concurrently, in Europe, peasants who comprised the majority of the population worked and payed tribute to the Catholic Church. The class system was so entrenched in society that the lack of social mobility was severe, generations would all be limited to occupying the same class. Fluctuating climate changes rendered consistent growth of crops and support of a growing population impossible (Lect. 1, 1/22). Life in rural Europe was inhospitable and even though peasants were prohibited from migrating to the cities, some still risked it in hopes of a better future. The reality was that the urban centers were not fairing any better, being riddled with disease and overcrowded. All these factors contributed to the frustration of Western Europeans …show more content…
Frustration with the system of indentured servitude and lack of labor resulted in the English implementing a similar system of African slavery in the Chesapeake like the Caribbean sugar colonies. (Lect. 5, 2/1). The rise of chattel slavery was another factor that served to buttress the ideology of enslaving Africans, where people were seen as property to be bought and sold. The most prominent example is in 1662, where a law was passed stating that a child’s freedom was derived from the mother. The ruling class utilized this for their own benefit, so that the child of an unfree woman would always be a slave, translating to a continuous source of labor. Furthermore, laws stating that slavery was the natural condition of black people in the 1660s were passed, neither achievement nor aptitude mattered. (Lect. 5, 2/1). Slave codes were enacted throughout time in different Southern colonies, gathering all laws regulating slavery and consolidating it into a set of rules. It was an ideological tool to figure out how to regulate and uphold slavery, transforming the white population into a surveillance force (Lect. 5, 2/1). With the establishment of such laws, it coerced black slaves to behave inferiorly and this is the way the white population became acclimated to seeing them. It became a self-perpetuating concept of sorts and over time the condition of black people was seen as this universal truth, when the reality was far from it, they were forced into their condition. The discord left by Bacon’s Rebellion was taken advantage of by the ruling class that feared future rebellion; they sought to quell the angst of the white population by redirecting their tension towards the black population. The task of the ruling class was to implement an ideological change, since indentured servitude was fundamentally different from owning a person for life. To sow division,
During this time period, “no English colony remained without laws dealing specifically with the governance of Negroes.” Specific pieces of legislation would be passed within the English colonies that were ultimately based on the if one was a slave or free. However, with these slave laws enacted, the laws “told the white man, not the Negro, what he must do. It was the white man who was required to punish.” Overall, it was the slave owner who had the responsibility to punish the slave. For the white slave owner, “absolute control became a major priority, and slaves were subject to severe discipline.” Since the African slave was a living tool for the slave owner, he or she was not deemed to be human, which meant that a series of inhumane punishments could be sanctioned upon the African slave. Moreover, these laws were enacted so that the white man would remain in control at all times, hence white over black. Due to the fact that the African slave was not deemed a human being by the white man, the laws and punishments that were passed were inhuman as well. For example, in the English colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Virginia, the enslaved African man could be punished by being castrated for sexual aggression. Moreover, was Sally Hemings the sexual aggressor or was Thomas Jefferson the sexual
Slavery was a main contributor in the South in the 1800s. African Americans were enslaved in large plantations growing cotton, instead of tobacco. Slavery was the same old story it was in the 1600s, barely anything had changed. Slavery was the dominating reality of southern life in the antebellum period due to economical, social, and political reasons.
The institution of slavery, from the year 1830 to 1860, created a divide between the northern and southern regions of the United States. Southerners, who relied on slaves to maintain their plantations, supported the institution, as it was a major part of their economy. Meanwhile, northerners, many of whom depended on slave produced cotton for textile mills and goods for the shipping industry, were divided on the slave issue, as some saw it as a blessing while the abolitionists saw it as a horrific institution. Overall, attitudes toward the institution of slavery, due to a variety of causes, differed in the varying regions in the United States from 1830 to 1860.
The labor law of 1661 said that if a white indentured servant were to run away with a black indentured servant and the white person was caught, then they would have to finish both their own contract as well as the contract of the black persons. In applying this law, it taught white people that if they were to interact with a black person then they would be punished. The labor law of 1662 stated that the race of the child born in Virginia would be determined by the race and status of their mother whom was most likely black. These labor laws alienated Africans so that it set a mindset for white against black, they were no longer in unity or had shared experiences, and this created a system where the Europeans saw themselves as higher than black individuals which set the ground for racism and
Document E: Autobiography of a Former Slave is the most reliable source throughout this entire packet. This source was written by a slave, Olaudah Equiano, who was kidnapped at a young age by an African tribe and sold to European slave traders. In the excerpt, the former slave said “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a smell in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life,” this slave could not handle the smell he breathed. This explains to the reader that being so tightly together was a major problem, which caused diseases and infections. “I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste any thing.” This quote tells the reader that because of the horrible smells
From the beginning the 17th century, when England first established its permanent colonies in North America, substantial differences occurred other colonies whose economy were mainly dedicated to the production of crops as well as more varied frugality of the northern colonial rules. Initially, colonists in Virginia and the Chesapeake of Maryland depended on the white indentured help as their chief labor force as well as some of the Africans who came in the area was able to get a property. Though, between 1635 and 1670, a significant difference arose between short-term vassalage for whites and the permanent slavery for blacks. In fact In Virginia, Bacon 's Revolt hastened the change toward slavery. Towards
Hi April! After weighing the evidence presented in Chapter 3, I also came to the conclusion that the desire for wealth and power was a big cause of racial slavery - but I think you did a much better job explaining this theory than I did. However, in my post I mentioned that the monopolization of African slaves, as a result of the creation of the Royal African Company, played, in my opinion, the biggest role in the racial side of slavery. While I am sticking to this theory until disproven, I do think that you make a very good point when you say, "Each action handed down from England, combined with the laws established by Colonial America, propelled slavery more firmly into a situation based solely on race,". Although this is different than my
Life in Europe during the timeframe of ca. 1300 to ca. 1500 consisted of famine, plagues, and economic abundance. These trials and tribulation directly affected the individuals in the lower class of society, otherwise known as peasants. Peasants were directly affected by the Great Famine of the 1300’s, the Black Death of the mid 1300’s, and the positive and negative effects of the economic variances due to these maladies. In this essay, I will exhibit how the positive and negative effects of the Great Famine and Black Death affected the peasants during the time of ca. 1300 to ca. 1500. This demonstration will be displayed by presenting how the Great Famine attributed to the loss of 5-10% of Europe’s population, how the Black Death caused the death of up to 33% of Europe’s population, and finally demonstrate how the Black Death led to more freedom and economic prosperity for many of the surviving peasants.
"In 1660, only nine hundred blacks resided in the Chesapeake, some of whom had come as servants and were free. Two decades later, their number had grown to forty-three hundred (Ayers 79). Following the end of the rebellion, the Chesapeake region did not want to make the same mistake twice so the elite brought over enslaved Africans through trade instead of importing white servants to tend to their work. In the ever-hierarchical colony of Virginia, the elites sought an end to one class only to create an entirely new one. Furthermore, the vague definition of African Americans became lucid following the rebellion when individuals were now clearly distinguished between African or European descent. Ayers chronicles the slave's limitations, stating that they were, "bound for life and restricted by laws, black slaves could not demand farms or a voice in government (Ayers 68). These troubling new measures were thought to be an answer to the savage Indians as well as the restless freemen, but instead proved that Nathaniel Bacon only realized what he wanted, but not what he was
The American colonies were established with the idea of freedom and liberty to all. This goal, however, is darkened by a contradictory event: racism. Racism against African Americans (Negroes) in America was a by-product of permanent and inhumane enslavement of the black population. This type slavery was built upon the need for the American colonies to achieve economic prosperity and social stability. The slavery prior to these social and economic problems was equal to that of white slavery. Black and white slaves and indentured servants received the same treatments, given equal punishments and working conditions. Both races were regarded as equally low in status and slavery itself in general carried a term of negative connotation. Free black men held the same Englishmen rights as fellow whites and were seen in every aspect as equal to whites. Only when the colonies began to strip blacks of all their titles and properties and reduce them to the title chattel, or property, because of the need to solve economic and societal problems did racism emerge to define all blacks as slaves.
From 1775 to 1830, developments like that of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793, the 1803 Louisiana Purchase by the U.S., and the rise of the textile industry in England led to a great expansion of slavery. Concurrently, abolitionist reform movement rose in the north as anti-slavery sentiment increased, with a growing fear of slaves unbalancing the political landscape in representation for the South. During this time, freed African Americans were often imperative in helping those who were enslaved face their challenges through their efforts, while some of the challenges faced by freed slaves was because of the ideas stemming from slavery. In facing their challenges, freed blacks adopted strategies such as leaving America, and arguing their case for rights, while slaves looked to rebellion and disobedience, with the help of freed blacks, in order to advance. Without slavery, freed black would not have faced many of the challenges that they did, and so too, without the aid of freed blacks, many slaves couldn't have overcome their obstacles to emancipation.
To begin, the first colonies used indentured servitude to ensure steady economic growth with tobacco in the New World. Indentured servitude were a less effective method for labor in the colonies because servants would have usually come to the New World, served their contracts, and then released after a short time. Slave systems became an alluring solution for the colonies as indentured servitude declined. The need for the slave system became apparent and a necessity for the colonies’ growth. Slave owners, who were thriving financially from their farms and businesses, began to justify the use of the slave systems through the consolidation of race and racism. Slave owners argued that slaves were intellectually and biologically inferior because of the color of their skin. Of the many examples that allowed slavery to foster in colonial America, one example would be the “Acts Defining Slavery” by the Virginia General Assembly. These acts were laws that set precedence and authorized the legality of slavery in the colony, which were reprehensible. For example, “all children borne, shall be held bond or free according to the condition of the mother”, which was Act XII (1662) that condemned any child that was born by an African mother to be enslaved (105). The change in thinking that was reflected in this time period demonstrated a shift of labor force and formalizing race and racism. As the colonies’ prosperity blossomed economically from slavery, it moved towards the notion for freedom and independence from Britain through political and revolutionary
Indentured service were “men and women who signed a contract by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia” (Encyclopedia Virginia). If the men and women served their contact fully, they would receive land themselves. There were blacks and whites in the same social class, and working the same job. During the Bacon’s Rebellion, blacks and whites worked together to rebell against Berkeley. When the rebels were finally defeated, it ended indentured servitude. Due to “the ruling class in Virginia to be terrified of white and black servants uniting and changed the hardened the slave policy along racial lines. No more would white and black people serve together on the lowest rung” (History Revived). Demand for tobacco, rice, and indigo required tremendous need for labor and “post-Bacon's Rebellion world where slavery and the plantation economy are in place, where black people are arriving in large numbers from Africa, the view of black people changes very rapidly” (PBS). Black slaves were now viewed as property that produced labor at a cheap expensed. In conclusion, the ending of the indentured service spark the demand for black slaves for
The problems occurring in Virginia at the time, the response to problems occurring, and the passion for change by both the Africans and white laborer contributed to the birth of slavery and freedom both during and after Bacon’s Rebellion. Nathaniel Bacon was a wealthy landowner, who brought men together because of the issues occurring under the rule of Governor Berkeley. The quote, “Bacon’s Rebellion marks a turning point in American ideas of race, giving birth to black slavery and American freedom,” is true because it showed the government how strong the Africans and white men became when they united for a cause, the government then had to take actions to make sure this would never happen again.
In British colonial America, indentured servitude was borne from the Virginia Company out of a need for cheaper labor, and was gradually replaced by African slaves in the 17th and 18th centuries for the same reason. The growth of slavery in America was not a result of racism or intent, but of economic opportunism. Both were exploited for profit to the maximum of the free planters ability, which in the slave’s case, was much more, because there were little to no laws protecting them, and sometimes even laws targeted against them.